Integrated Coastal Management
Tools and Instruments for Integrated Coastal Management
Policy and Governance

Science and Education for Integrated Coastal Management
Coastal Conservation and Protected Areas
Cultural Resources
Coastal and Marine Ecology
Coastal Landscapes
Coastal Tourism and Recreation
Beach Management
Shoreline Management
Environmental Risk Management


Coastal and Marine Pollution
Coastal Engineering
Coastal Hydrodynamics
Coastal Oceanography
Climate Change
Coastal Geomorphology and Hydrology
Remote Sensing and GIS
Various Subjects






Integrated Coastal Management




Integrated Approaches in the Russian Maritime Policy: Modern State

Yuriy G. Mikhaylichenko


Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation,
1, 3, 1st Tverskaya-Yamskaya st., Moscow 125993 Russia
Tel: +7-495-650 8180 Fax: +7-495-251 7441
E-mail: mikhaylichenko@economy.gov.ru



Nowadays maritime activity in the country is regulated on the basis of a departmental (sectoral) approach and use of different resources is regulated by different legislative acts. This entails numerous conflicts of interests, does not contain mechanisms to resolve them and is poorly environmentally-oriented. The following key provisions should be introduced into Russian marine and coastal legislation and regulations: integrated ecosystem-based approach to planning and managing the maritime activity, adaptive management, participatory process, application of the best existing scientific and technology knowledge, precautionary approach, preventive measures, conservation of biodiversity, etc.; mechanisms (legislative, economic and institutional) to authorize and support the activity of provincial and local authorities in developing coastal and marine resources; practice of development and realization of ICZM programs in the frames of complex programs of socio-economic development of coastal provinces and programs of coastal municipalities development.



UNEP MAP PAP RAC Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) for Slovenia

Slavko Mezek


Regional Development Centre Koper, Zupanciceva 18, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
Tel: + 386 5 66 37 580 Fax: +386 5 55 37 581
E-mail: slavko.mezek@rrc-kp.si


The Coastal Area Management Programme - CAMP Slovenia was implemented by the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP), the Republic of Slovenia and the Municipalities of South Primorska in the period 2004-2007. The goal of the project was to contribute to the national efforts towards sustainable development, management and environmental protection of the Slovenian costal region, and to strengthen the process of integrated management of the coastal zone. There were two types of projects carried out within this framework: individual projects dealing with the priority issues and horizontal projects aiming to integrate all activities into an integrated management process.

The CAMP Slovenia was focused on spatial planning and the issues related to spatial planning. The main programme within the framework of the CAMP Slovenia was the Conception of Spatial Development of South Primorska, a basic spatial strategic document of the region, which would direct the future (spatial) development and lead to sustainable development of the region.

The final result, produced within the CAMP Slovenia, was the coastal development programme defining in greater detail a part of the Regional Development Programme referring to coastal issues, environment and spatial development. Therefore, the CAMP Slovenia exploited the available institutional infrastructure and implementation instruments (particularly financial) that strengthened its implementation capacity.



The Effects of Public Participation in ICM Projects

F. Santoro(1,2), S. Soriani(2), G. Zanetto(2,3)
and A. Marcomini(2,4)


(1) Euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (CMCC), c/o Consorzio Venezia Ricerche, Viale della Libertà 12, Marghera-Venice, Italy
Tel: +39-0415093184, +390415093074
E-mail: fsantoro@unive.it
(2) Interdepartmental Centre IDEAS,, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Calle Larga S. Marta 2137, I-30123 Venice, Italy
Tel: +39-0412348548, +39-0412348584
E-mail: soriani@unive.it, gzanetto@unive.it, marcom@unive.it
(3) E-mail: gzanetto@unive.it
(4) E-mail: marcom@unive.it


Participation in coastal management is the process by which there are opportunities for common contribution and balanced sharing of activities. Participation can be considered in two broad senses: the opportunity for participation of interested parties within the management process, and public participation in general.

In this paper a series of lessons learned based on experience working with stakeholders groups in the context of ICM projects in Mediterranean countries, are presented.

Results from the analysis demonstrate that there is a great variation in the immediate outcome of public participation. However, under many conditions, including some that are likely to apply often in coastal management context, processes that are more participatory along the dimensions of breadth, timing, intensity, and influence, lead to improved overall outcome. Nevertheless, evidence also strongly suggests that public participation processes can lead to undesired results that may be worse than what would have resulted from less participatory processes.



OURCOAST - A European Initiative to Support ICZM

Alan Pickaver(1), Maria Ferreira(1), Joana Mira Veiga(1),
Rob Steijn(2), Patrycja Czerniak(2), Bernd Heinichen(3)
and Annemie Volckaert(4)


(1) Coastal & Marine Union (EUCC), PO-box 11232, 2301 EE Leiden,
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 71 5122900 Fax: +31 71 5124069
E-mail: a.pickaver@eucc.net; m.ferreira@eucc.net; j.m.veiga@eucc.net;
(2) Alkyon Hydraulic Consultancy & Research, Voorsterweg 28, 8316 PT Marknesse, The Netherlands
Tel: + 31 527 248130 Fax: +31 527 248111
E-mail: steijn@alkyon.nl; czerniak@alkyon.nl
(3) Arcadis-Germany, Consult GmbH, IT-Entwicklung, Glück-Auf-Str. 1 09599 Freiberg, Germany
Tel: +49 (3731) 7886 44 Fax: +49 (3731) 7886 99
E-mail: b.heinichen@arcadis.de
(4) Arcadis-Belgium, Kortrijksesteenweg 302, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
Tel: +32 9 241 77 31 Fax: +32 9 242 44 45
E-mail: a.volckaert@arcadisbelgium.be


OURCOAST is a three-year project commissioned by the DG Environment of the European Commission to support and ensure the exchange of experiences and best practices in integrated coastal zone management. The project was made possible by the European Parliament by approving a resource for this purpose in the EU budget in 2008.

One of the main objectives and results of this project is the construction of an ICZM Database where hundreds of experiences of integrated approaches to coastal management issues applied throughout Europe are made available. These case studies will be collected, described in summaries and grouped under particular themes and key approaches, which will also serve as the base for the search mechanism within the database. A comparative analysis will be undertaken, as another important outcome of OURCOAST in which the case studies will be analysed regarding their effectiveness, success and fail factors of the approaches and tools. The results of the project and the ICZM Database will integrate a user-friendly and multilingual website which will continue evolving well after the project is concluded.



Features of Integrated Coastal Management in the Far East of Russia

Ivan S. Arzamastsev, Anatoly N. Kachur and
Peter Y. Baklanov


Pacific Geographical Institute FEBRAS, 690041, 7, Radio St.,
Vladivistok, Russia
Tel: 8(4232)55-96-80 Fax: 8(4232)31-28-33
E-mail: arz@ti.dvo.ru


To solve environmental problems, conflicts and social and economic contradictions and for sustainable development of coastal zones there is used Integrated Coastal Management strategy (ICM). The activity is carried out on the basis of analysis of natural peculiarities, environmental conditions, and socio-ecological issues.

On the Pacific coast of Russia ICARM implementation has a number of peculiarities.

A vast area of northern Far Eastern coasts of Russia covers low-populated districts without roads, towns, industrial enterprises. These districts are characterized by severe hydrometeorological conditions. Such conditions provide serious problems for human life and activities.

At the same time in Russia, there exists is no legislation on coastal issues. Coastal zone definition is not legally approved, as well as definition of its boundaries. No responsibilities at federal, regional and municipal levels are applied for the area.

Thus, to prepare informational, theoretical and methodical bases for organization of sustained nature management in coastal zones of Russian Federation we developed hierarchy structure of delimitation of coastal areas and recommendations for their development on the basis of nature resource and social-economic zoning. This activity was performed with consideration of Pacific coast of Russia and Primorsky Krai in the south-west part of the Sea of Japan



Evaluation of ICZM Implementation in the Russian Federation

Lev Karlin(1) and Nikolay Plink(1,2)


(1) Russian State Hydrometeorological University, ICM Department, Malookhtinsky pr. 98, St. Petersburg, 195196 Russia
Tel: +812 4444163 Fax: +812 4446090
E-mail: rector@rshu.ru
(2) E-mail: plink@rshu.ru


Developed by EC Working Group on data and indicators (EC WG-ID) marker's system has been used for evaluation of ICM implementation in the Russian Federation. The methods of expert estimations and target interviewing were developed for evaluation of the level of ICM implementation. Evaluations were made for national, regional and local levels of integrated coastal management. Examples of Leningrad Region as well as municipalities of small coastal cities Primorsk and Kingisepp (the Eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea) have been chosen for evaluation of ICM implementation on regional and local level of management. Results of evaluation have shown that level of ICM implementation in Russia is corresponding to the first and partly to the second phases of ICZM management cycle. Specificity of ICM implementation in Russia is developing ICM mostly as "down-up" process. Lack of ICM implementation in Russia in comparison with European Union is about 10-12 years. Main problems of ICM implementation in Russia are poor national governmental support of ICM efforts and absence of national coastal law regulating ICM development process in the Russian Federation.

Tools and Instruments for Integrated Coastal Management



Methodologies to Build up Tools to Measure Coastal Sustainable Development

Françoise Breton(1), Emil Ivanov(2), Alejandro Iglesias-Campos(3)
and Juan Arévalo-Torres (4)


European Topic Centre on Land Use and Spatial Information
E- 08193, Bellaterra, Spain
Tel: + 34 93 581 35 18 Fax: + 34 93 581 35 45
(1) E-mail: francoise.breton@uab.es
(2) E-mail: EmilDimitrov.Ivanov@uab.es
(3) E-mail: alejandro.iglesias@uab.es
(4) E-mail: juan.arevalo@uab.es


Homogeneous data for the coastal and the marine environment is needed at European scale in order to create indicators and implement tools to measure and to manage the coastal sustainable development.

ETC-LUSI is working since 2001 on methodologies to build up this kind of tools, such as indicators, environmental accounting, scenarios and socio-economic valuations. An accounting framework has been developed on the basis of several methods, structured in such a way that it is possible to integrate and harmonise multiple data-sources (mainly statistical and remote sensing derived) producing ultimately spatial indicators on several levels of detail and spatial scales. Indicators address environmental issues at European-spatial perspective and beyond (including also the Mediterranean and Black Sea neighbouring areas) They include land-cover areas and changes (stocks and flows), land uses, species and habitat richness, fragmentation and connectivity, primary productivity and the human appropriation of it, etc.



Implementation of WFD and MSFD in Slovenia

Monika Peterlin(1) and Tanja Mohorko(1,2)


(1) Institute for Water of the Republic of Slovenia, 10000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Tel: +386 1 4775 337 Fax: +386 1 4775 343
E-mail: monika.peterlin@izvrs.si
(2) E-mail: tanja.mohorko@izvrs.si


The EU Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC) is in its' final implementation stage. This year (2009) all EU member states must finalize and publish their first River Basin Management Plans, setting out clearly the steps required to achieve good ecological and chemical status and promote the sustainable use of water by 2015. These management plans apply to all surface freshwater bodies, groundwater, estuaries and coastal waters out to one nautical mile.
In 2008 the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (Directive 2008/56/EC) became law. It provides national and local authorities with a legal base for the maintenance and recovery of coastal and marine waters with the aim of achieving good environmental status and to promote the sustainable use of the marine environment by 2021. The three main challenges of the MSFD are 1) the need to establish a common vision and a general approach for all regional seas, 2) the need to establish a specific regional approach to the management of the marine environment and 3) the need to address all pressures on the marine environment in a holistic and integrated approach.
This article outlines the steps, taken in Slovenia in the preparation of its own RBMP's and summarizes the key findings and the main managerial issues encountered. In addition, a description of initial steps, taken during the implementation of the MSFD and an analysis of links and gaps between the implementation of the WFD and MFSD is presented.



Indicators for the Observatory of Mediterranean Wetlands

Coralie Beltrame(1), Thomas Galewski(1,2),
Christian Perennou(1,3) and Laurent Chazée(1,4)


(1) Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, 13200 Arles, France
Tel: + 33-4-90 97 20 13 Fax: + 33-4-90 97 20 19
E-mail: beltrame@tourduvalat.org
(2) E-mail: galewski@tourduvalat.org
(3) E-mail: perennou@tourduvalat.org
(4) E-mail: chazee@tourduvalat.org


In the complex political, ecological, sociologic and economic Mediterranean context, water and coastal space for urbanisation and agriculture are critical issues. Thus, coastal wetlands are under dramatic pressures. The Observatory of Mediterranean Wetlands (OMW) was recently launched as a broad partnership. It aims to provide and communicate a general overview about the status and trends of wetlands in the Mediterranean as well as analyses to explain them and to specify their implications for natural heritage and human well-being.

In order to reach these objectives, it has started designing a monitoring and assessment framework, including priority themes for each objective and associated priority indicators. The aim of this study is to present a review of the existing sets of indicators found in available environmental monitoring and assessment systems. Twenty-three conventions, legal instruments or programs dealing with biodiversity assessment, wetland conservation and sustainable development, with a special focus on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, were reviewed.

Around 20 themes and a large number of indicators (> 500) were registered during this process. Nevertheless redundancy and congruency between the reviewed programs were high, especially as far as biodiversity and wetlands were concerned. This, put in respect with the three main objectives of the OMW, allowed proposing six, integrative themes for the OMW and, for each of them, some priority indicators. This themes' proposal was then discussed among the partners to choose a first list to begin with. Their implementation in the Mediterranean wetlands will start by 2010.



Climate Change Risk Assessment for Coastal Management

Silvia Torresan(1), Andrea Critto(1,2), Marco Tonino(2), Enrico Alberighi(1), Lisa Pizzol(1,2),
Francesca Santoro(1,2), and Antonio Marcomini (1,2)

(1) Euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (CMCC), c/o Consorzio Venezia Ricerche, Viale della Libertà 12, Marghera-Venice, Italy,
Tel. +39-0415093022, +390415093188
E-mail: torresan@unive.it, fsantoro@unive.it
(2) Department of Environmental Sciences, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Calle Larga S. Marta 2137, I-30123 Venice, Italy,
Tel. +39-0412348548, +39-0412348584
E-mail: critto@unive.it, marcom@unive.it


Climate change impacts on coastal zones (e.g. erosion, inundation, water quality variations) are very dependent on regional geographical and environmental features, climate, and socio-economic conditions. Impact studies should therefore be performed at the local or at most at the regional level. In order to provide regionally-specific information that can assist coastal communities in planning adaptation measures to the effects of climate change, a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed. The main aim of the RRA is to evaluate and rank the potential impacts, vulnerabilities and risks of climatic changes on coastal systems. Moreover the methodology allow the identification of key vulnerable receptors in the considered region and of homogeneous vulnerable and risk areas, that can be considered as homogeneous geographic sites for the definition of adaptation and management strategies.

For these purposes, the RRA integrates numerical models output for the construction of future climate change scenarios and considers bio-physical and socio-economic vulnerability indicators/indexes.

In order to analyse impacts at the regional spatial scale, the RRA employ downscaled climate, circulation and morphodynamic models for the analysis of inundation, storm surge and coastal erosion processes, and apply a suite of biogeochemical, trophic and fate and transport models, in order to assess climate change impacts on water quality. Moreover it includes the analysis of site-specific physical, ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the territory (e.g. coastal topography, geomorphology, presence and distribution of vegetation cover, location of artificial protection) and of local vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches and dunes, wetlands, protected areas).

Within the Euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (CMCC, www.cmcc.it) the RRA methodology will be applied to the coasts of the North Adriatic Sea in Italy. The main output will include relative risk/vulnerability GIS maps that will be used to establish relative priorities for intervention and to support coastal authorities in the implementation of sustainable planning and management processes. The downscaled approach employed for the development of regional climate change scenarios and of regional vulnerability, impact and risk indicators/indexes is here presented and discussed.



European Coastal and Marine Data for Information Support Systems Harmonisation and Reference data

Alejandro Iglesias-Campos(1), Walter Simonazzi(1,2),
Juan Arévalo-Torres(1,3) and Françoise Breton(1,4)

(1) European Topic Centre on Land Use and Spatial Information
E-08193 - Barcelona, Spain
Tel: + 34 93 5868460 Fax: + 34 93 5813545
E-mail: Alejandro.iglesias@uab.es
(2) E-mail: walter.simonazzi@uab.es
(3) E-mail: juan.arevalo@uab.es
(4) E-mail: francoise.breton@uab.es


Data mining on coastal and marine strongly depends on the construction of a morphological and functional concept of littoral able to clarify the field of application of the coast and the sea interface. One of the main needs is to define a common coastline for Europe at different scales, in order to delimitate the coastal and marine environment by the Member States for a common conceptualisation.



Coastal and Marine Information System of Andalusia (Spain)

Alejandro Iglesias-Campos(1), Gonzalo Malvárez-García(2), José Ojeda-Zújar(3)
and José Manuel Moreira-Madueño(1,4)

(1) Junta de Andalucía - Regional Ministry of Environment
E-41013 Sevilla, Spain
Tel: + 34 955 0 3834 Fax: + 34 955 003773
E-mail: alejandro.iglesias.ext@juntadeandalucia.es
(2) Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla, Spain
Tel: + 34 954 349518 Fax: + 34 954 349818
E-mail: gcmalgar@upo.es
(3) Universidad de Sevilla, E-41002 Sevilla, Spain
Tel: +34 954 551374 Fax: +34 954 556988
E-mail: zujar@us.es
(4) E-mail: josem.moreira@juntadeandalucia.es


The Environmental Information Network of Andalusia's (REDIAM) Coastal and Marine Information System offers a unique opportunity to provide online access to different coastal and marine data from all kind of sources and nature, providing tools and services for its own interoperability. The technology used for its development allows the different systems to operate in a compatible way, despite each of the subsystems having a different architecture, complying with the first condition for interoperability.



Connecting the EnviroGRIDS Black Sea Catchment Observation System to ICZM

Anthony Lehmann(1), Nicolas Ray(1,2), Ahmet Kideys(3),
Philip Weller(4) and Mamuka Gvilava(5)

(1) University of Geneva / Climatic Change and Climate Impacts / EnviroSpace
Battelle Bat D. / 7 Route de Drize, CH-1227 Carouge, SWITZERLAND; and UNEP/DEWA/GRID-Europe / International Environment House
11 Chemin des Anémones / CH-1219 Châtelaine / SWITZERLAND
Tel: +41-22-379-00-21 Fax: +41-22-379-07-44
E-mail: Anthony.Lehmann@unige.ch
Web: www.EnviroGRIDS.net, www.unige.ch/envirospace
(2) Tel: +41-22-379-07-84 Fax: +41-22-379-07-44
E-mail: Nicolas.Ray@unige.ch
(3) Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against pollution
Dolmabahce Sarayi, 2 Hareket Kosku, 34353 Besiktas, Istanbul, TURKEY
Tel: +90-212-327-35-80 Fax: +90-212-227-99-33
E-mail: Ahmet.Kideys@blacksea-commission.org
Web: www.blacksea-commission.org
(4) International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River
Vienna International Centre, Room D0412
PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, AUSTRIA
Tel: + 43-1-26060-5738 Fax: + 43-1-26060-5895
E-mail: Philip.Weller@unvienna.org, Web: www.icpdr.org
(5) National ICZM Focal Point for Georgia
GeoGraphic, GIS and RS Consulting Centre
27, Pekini str., 0160, Tbilisi, GEORGIA
Tel: +995-99-54-66-16 Fax: +995-32-38-19-48
E-mail: MGvilava@GeoGraphic.ge or MGvilava@ICZM.ge
Web: www.GeoGraphic.ge


The Black Sea catchment is internationally known as one of ecologically unsustainable development and inadequate resource management, which has led to severe environmental, social and economic problems. The EnviroGRIDS @ Black Sea Catchment project addresses these issues by bringing several emerging information technologies that are revolutionizing the way we are able to observe our planet. The Group on Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) is building a data-driven view of our planet that feeds into models and scenarios to explore our past, present and future. EnviroGRIDS aims at building the capacity of scientist to assemble such a system in the Black Sea Catchment, the capacity of decision-makers to use it, and the capacity of the general public to understand the important environmental, social and economic issues at stake. EnviroGRIDS will particularly target the needs of the Black Sea Commission (BSC) and the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) in order to help bridging the gap between science and policy. This will allow the project to benefit from an existing large network of potential end-users and national authorities. In return these commissions will be able to use the results of the EnviroGRIDS project to accomplish their mission. EnviroGRIDS objectives, in particular, match perfectly those of the Black Sea Commission, enabling it to become a central piece of information system in the region. EnviroGRIDS will also build a strong collaboration with the new PEGASO project on integrated coastal zone management in the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Indeed, understanding the relationships between the expected changes in the catchment area and the ongoing development of coastal zones is of crucial importance for the future of the Black Sea region.



Information Resources of the National Project CoRuNA for Management of the Russian Coasts

Igor Podymov(1) and Tatiana Podymova(1,2)

(1) RAS, P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Southern Branch,
353467 Gelendzhik, Russia
Tel: + 7-86141-2 82 81 Fax: + 7-86141-2 80 89
E-mail: podymov@coastdyn.ru
(2) E-mail: tpodymova@inbox.ru


The existing Internet project for regulating the mechanisms of management of Russian coasts, its perspectives and possible reorganization of its structure following the enhancement of interaction between project participants are proposed for conference discussion.



A Proposal for Coastal Zone Planning at Gemlik Bay (Turkey)

Selmin Burak(1), Serkan Canli(2) and Sibel Zeki(1,3)

(1) Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Muskule Sok. No: 1 34470 Vefa, Istanbul
Tel: 212-4400000-26049 Fax: 212-514 0367
E-mail: sburak@istanbul.edu.tr
(2) Undersecretariat for Maritime Affairs, Gemlik Harbour Authority Gemlik/Bursa
Tel: 244-5131133
E-mail: serkancanli@hotmail.com
(3) E-mail: szeki@istanbul.edu.tr


Harbours constitute one of the key commercial activities on coastal cities. However these may develop use conflicts among other sectors, mainly the ones aiming at environmental protection if a comprehensive coastal management planning is not carried out prior to any implementation. The lack of a comprehensive framework law for integrated coastal zone management results in failure of the implementation of rational and sustainable decisions concerning coastal zone management. Although several clauses of legislation address various issues of coastal zone management, one single "Coastal Management Act" with the objective of defining the overriding principles of coastal management plans has not yet been promulgated. The lack of such a law with fragmentation of the decision-making process gives rise to unsustainable coastal development.

Gemlik District Municipal Area is located at the crossroad of the two large metropolises, namely Istanbul and Bursa and is home to the fourth largest free trade zone of Turkey. This fact has doubled the commercial activities in Gemlik and resulted in heavy urbanization on the coastal area by increasing the existing pressure on the coastal area of Gemlik Bay.

The study was carried out on a 65 km wide coastal area extending along the shoreline of Gemlik. The inventory was carried out on the field and by using the archives of both the Maritime Undersecretariat for Maritime Affairs and the Directorate of Gemlik Harbour in order to identify the existing and planned coastal structures (e.g. harbours, quays, breakwaters, and landing) with a classification of registered and authorized and unregistered/unauthorized ones as well as land reclamation.

This paper summarizes the results of this study which, based on the inventory of the existing and planned coastal structures, makes a proposal for coastal planning in the light of the findings.



Policy and Governance



Towards the Andalusian Coastal Sustainability

Alejandro Iglesias-Campos(1), Gonzalo Malvárez-García(2), Fátima Navas-Concha(2),
Francisco Cáceres-Clavero(1) andJosé Ramón Guzmán-Álvarez(1)

(1) Junta de Andalucía - Regional Ministry of Environment
E-41013 Sevilla, Spain
Tel: + 34 955 0 3834 Fax: + 34 955 003773
E-mail: alejandro.iglesias.ext@juntadeandalucia.es
E-mail: francisco.caceres@juntadeandalucia.es
E-mail: joser.guzman@juntadeandalucia.es
(2) Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla, Spain
Tel: + 34 954 349518 Fax: + 34 954 349818
E-mail: gcmalgar@upo.es
E-mail: fnavcon@upo.es


The Government of Andalusia has responsibility for natural resources, protected natural areas, prevention and environmental quality of coastal waters, inland water, land policy and land-use planning, ports sporting and fishing heritage, inland fisheries, aquaculture and shellfish.

During the last years, the Government of Andalusia has been promoting, together with the University of Cadiz, towards the development of the "Andalusian Strategy for the Integrated Coastal Zone Management", an ambitious project in which the major social and economic players, institutions and the regional administration are actively participating.



The Issue of Legal Status and Diversity of Ecosystems of the Caspian Sea

A. A. Aldabaev (1), M. V. Pavlova(1), G. A. Monakhova (2)
and A. M. Butaev (3)

(1) Caspian Marine Scientific Research Centre, 14 Shiryaeva street, 414045
Astrakhan, Russia
Tel: +7 8512 30-34-70 Fax: +7 8512 30-11-63
E-mail: kaspmniz@mail.ru
(2) Dagestan State University, Ecology department, 21 Dakhadaeva Str., 367025 Makhachkala, Russia
Tel /Fax: +7 8722 67-46-51
E-mail: gavochka@mail.ru(3) Dagestan RAS Research Centre, 45 Gadzhieva Str., 367025 Makhachkala, Russia
Tel: +7 8722 67-06-20 Fax: +7 8722 67-46-65
E-mail: butaev@caspiy.net


The paper proposes a new approach to decision on the legal status of the Caspian Sea. The uncertainty on the legal status affects negatively the status of legal protection of the marine environment. However, this uncertainty provides a chance of adjusting the borders of national jurisdiction zones, in concordance with the boundaries of the environmental systems, which will contribute to the conservation of the sea biodiversity and prevention of interstate disputes in the use of marine natural resources.



Development of the Black Sea Coast of Caucasus in the Conditions of Changes of the Nature and Society

Vyacheslav Baburin(1), Mariya Goryachko(2) and Nikolai Kasimov(3)

(1) Moscow State University Faculty of Geography, 119991 Moscow, Russia
Tel: + 7-495-939-14-00 Fax: + 7-495-939-38-12
E-mail: vbaburin@yandex.ru
(2) E-mail: marishik@rambler.ru
(3) Tel: +7-495-939-22-38 Fax: + 7-495-932-88-36
E-mail: info@geogr.msu.ru


Article is devoted features of social and economic development of the Black Sea coast of Caucasus of Russia and an estimation of influence on it to realization of the large investment project "Sochi-2014". It is offered to spend an estimation of change of state of natural history and socio-cultural environment that will allow developing recommendations for management of territory in real time on the basis of the analysis of internal interrelations of dynamics of natural, socio-cultural and economic indicators.



Ecological Safety and State Regulation by Complex Development of Coastal Zones

Tatyana Gvarliani (1) and Elena Vorobei (1,2)

(1) Sochi State University for Tourism and Recreation,
26-A, Sovetskaya str., Sochi, 354000, Russia
Tel: +7-918-404-83-42 Fax: 8622- 64-88-68
E-mail: antana-tata@mail.ru
(2 Tel: +7-918-401-44-95
E-mail: e.vorobei@mail.ru


In June, 1995 at the All-Russia congress on wildlife management was examined the question on transition of Russia on the model of sustainable development within the limits of which the state strategy of the Russian Federation on preservation of the environment and maintenance of sustainable development has been approved. According to the strategy the basic purpose of economic activities is the achievement of ecological safety in Russia.

In these purposes it was supposed to emphasize on state regulation of wildlife management and stimulation of nature protection activity by carrying out purposeful social and economic, financial and a tax policy in conditions of development of market relations.



Political Culture of the Black Sea Coast of Russia in the Context of Political Processes

Olga A. Kryzhanovskaya(1), Svetlana V. Petrova(1,2)
and Lyudmila A. Beloslutzeva(1,3)

(1) Sochi State University for Tourism and Recreation,
354000 Sochi, Russia,
Tel: 89184076678, Fax: +8-8622-648575
E-mail: kryzhanovskaya@sutr.ru
(2) Tel: 89882338889, Fax: +8-8622-688470
E-mail: solus46@mail.ru
(3) Tel: 89604740096, Fax: +8-8622-648486
E-mail: beloslutzeva@hotmail.com


Political and cultural transformation surrounding the Russian multi-system changes during 1991-2008, dramatically reveal in the public mind of the South Russia population. Modern political culture in the south of the country is fragmented, reflecting the period of transition of Russian reality. However, it is unacceptable to believe that the South of Russia is the enclave of traditional and patriarchal modifiers, it is dualistic and includes two basic types of political culture - traditional national-patriotic and urbanised modernist along the coast of Black Sea and the main cities of the region. In political culture of Krasnodar territory the special sub region - the Sochi enclave is allocated. Special conditions, vital enterprise formed in a separate southern area the Sochi specific subculture, characterized by many features of a developed civic culture.



Science and Education for Integrated Coastal Management



A Review of Modern Coastal Research in Russia

Ruben Kosyan(1), Lev Zhindarev(2), Boris Chubarenko(3),
Svetlana Lukyanova(2,4) and Boris Khanukayev(5)

(1) Southern branch of the Institution of the Academy of science P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, rkosyan@hotmail.com
(2) M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, lzhindarev@yandex.ru
(3) Atlantic branch of the Institution of the Academy of science P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, chuboris@mail.ru
(4) geomorpho@mail.ru
(5) CoRuNA, bkha@himki.net


Now in Russia exist more than 100 organizations (often commercial), engaged to some extent in studying or arranging of sea coasts. This paper reviews activities of main of such organizations.




For an Efficient Scientific Strategy in the Mediterranean

Jacques Denis(1), Jean François Cadiou(1,2)
and Yves Henocque(3)

(1) Ifremer Mediterranean Centre (Toulon, France), Direction of Programmes and Projects Coordination
Tel: 33-4 94 30 48 20
E-mail: jacques.denis@ifremer.fr
(2) Tel: 33-4 94 30 49 75
E-mail: Jean.Francois.Cadiou@ifremer.fr
(3 Ifremer Headquarters (Paris, France), Direction of Prospective and Scientific Strategy
Tel: 33-1 46 48 21 76
E-mail: Yves.Henocque@ifremer.fr


The Mediterranean is a special area of high sensitivity and vulnerability with increasing political, environmental, social and economic issues at stake. It is the subject of many research programs whose one purpose is to provide the knowledge required for the definition and implementation of public policies for management of this space. Supported by various scientific organizations or groups, these programs aim to increase awareness regarding the Mediterranean marine environment and its interactions with humans through its various compartments.

However, these programs would gain in relevance and effectiveness if knowledge was better mobilized to respond to the needs of managers and users of the coast and the sea. In general, issues of concern are complex. They often require a multi-scale and multi-thematic approach and need a strong synergy between actions and involved actors. Such an approach must be considered as an integrated expertise guided by a systemic model.

Ifremer (French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea) is strongly involved in research and monitoring activities related to the marine environment. Its scientific strategy emphasis the necessity to develop some projects based on these principles and focusing on some geographical areas. Particular attention is paid to strengthening partnerships and networks and the relationship between science and policy. Among them, the Mediterranean Sea has been identified as a priority area for applying such integrated approach. The aim is to build a scientific tool which will support public policy regarding the management of the sea and the coast. Its thematic content is being defined but it is widely accepted that it should address key issues for the Mediterranean including : marine resources management and biodiversity, contamination of ecosystems by chemicals and increasing pressure from human activity, e.g. the impact of large coastal cities on the marine environment.

Such an organization will effectively support the PEGASO project.



Problem-based Learning for Regional Integrated Coastal Management: A Case Study of the Turkish Straits

A.W. Gallagher(1) and T. Hallpike(2)

(1) School of Engineering, Construction and Maritime Studies, Faculty of Technology, Southampton Solent University, Southampton UK SO14 0RD
Tel: +44 (0) 2380 319748 Fax: +44 (0) 2380 319739
E-mail: anthony.gallagher@solent.ac.uk
(2) E-mail: tim.hallpike@solent.ac.uk


Problem-based learning (PBL) is a multi-faceted and student-centred educational technique that can be classified under the umbrella term of active learning. The approach is both flexible and diverse in its implementation but is essentially characterised around problem scenarios whereby small collaborative groups of students learn through trying to solve challenging, open-ended problems. The emphasis in this approach is on learning rather than instruction and therefore tutors take on the role of facilitators as opposed to teachers. Accordingly, students are encouraged to take responsibility for their group and organize and direct the learning process with support from the facilitator.

This paper reviews the application of the approach to the complex 'real world' problem of ensuring swift and, at the same time, safe passage of ships through the Turkish Straits. This international waterway, governed since 1936 by the Montreux Convention, consists of two narrow straits in north-western Turkey, the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, connecting the Sea of Marmara with both the Black Sea and the Aegean. Solving the problems inherent in these narrow straits is a goal shared by all parties involved, however the combination of issues - political, legal and navigational - make this goal particularly difficult to achieve.

Using PBL, students on the International Maritime Studies (IMS) Masters Programme at Southampton Solent University undergo a 5 day workshop in which they are asked to research and present a solution to this on-going problem. Having used this particular scenario and approach for a number of years, a wide range of ideas have been suggested and though there is clearly no 'right answer', it is considered highly relevant for demonstrating the complexity of real-world ICZM problems which rely on negotiation and the identification and justification of best practicable options.

In evaluating the workshop, including the use of student feedback, it is considered that the PBL approach provides students with an opportunity to enhance content knowledge, foster the development of communication and critical thinking, and an opportunity to think 'outside the box', as well as enabling students to 'learn to learn'.



Ecological Education for the Black Sea Coast of Russia

M.N. Petrushina(1) and O.G. Postonogova(2)

(1) Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography, Department of Physical Geography and Landscape Science, Leninskie gory, 1,
119899 Moscow, Russia
Tel: +7-495-9392111, Fax: +7-495-9328836
E-mail: mnpetrushina@mail.ru
(2) All-Russian children's Center "Orlyonok", Novomickailovskiy, Krasnodarskiy krai, Russia
Tel: 88616792708
E-mail: postonogova@yander.ru


Coastal area of the Black Sea of Russia is the unique place in this country with high biodiversity of Mediterranean and subtropical humid landscapes, characterized by relict and endemic species of flora and fauna, as well as of considerable geological, historical and archaeological sites. It undergoes various anthropogenic impacts causing the deterioration of the coastal landscapes and requiring urgent environment protection measures based on their monitoring. The ecological education of population especially of the young people is one of the necessary and effective measures in achievement of the success. The All-Russian children's Center (ARCC) "Orlyonok" can be one of the main bases of such education due to it high educational potential. The collaboration of teachers and students of Moscow State University, specialists and pupils of this center became a good experience in the ecological education and training in the case of the coastal zone of the Black Sea and joint study of the sea and coast nature monitoring.



Competitiveness of a Tourism Specialized University in the Regional Market for Education

N. Matyushchenko (1), M. Ponomareva (1,2)
and D. Pushkareva (1,3)

(1) Sochi State University for Tourism and Recreation,
26-A, Sovetskaya str., Sochi, 354000, Russia
Tel/Fax: +7-8622-648-868
E-mail: subtropic@mail.ru
(2) E-mail: ponomareva-m@mail.ru
(3) E-mail: pushkareva_darya@mail.ru


Sochi has been successful for hoasting the 2014 Winter Olympic Games. To keep the promise of holding the Olympic Games perfectly, we should consider the organization and management of the personnel and volunteers in the Olympic Games and find a way to make the Game run smoothly. In order to run the best-ever Olympic Games in history, a great number of high-quality and versatile personnel will be selected, trained and assigned to various posts. This extremely important task the Sochi State University for Tourism and Recreation (SUTR) is ready to realize. The cities already holding the Olympic Games, faced with a problem of personnel. The quality and the level of their training should be other, since originating problems are absolutely new from all points of view. In Russia there is a reform of a system of professional training, and due to that country accepts Olympic Games, these problems are lifted on a new level, and its solution requires the systems approach. The conducted research, supported by SUTR, has evaluated competitiveness of the university in the regional educational services market with allowance for the Olympic Games effects.



Points of Creation of Educational Environment in Condition of Olympic Games'2014

I. Ashkinadze(1), V. Ekimova(1,2), Y. Ashkinadze(1,3)

(1) Anapa Branch of Sochi State University for Tourism and Recreation, 353451 Anapa, Krasnodar Territory, Russia
Tel: + 7-86133-326 09 Fax: + 7-86133-3 26 09
E-mail: afsgutkd@mail.ru
(2) E-mail: afsgutkd@mail.ru
(3) E-mail: afsgutkd@mail.ru


The broad public all over the world are watching the Olympic Games'2014 preparation in Russia. This event, undoubted, will demand hard work for building the new Olympic objects, infrastructure development and seek the solution of points of stuff ensuring as well. Tourism industry of Krasnodar region needs not only staff, but high qualified staffs, who possess new service technologies. It is necessary to improve the system of staff education at the united educational environment base. The centre's element of new system will be partnership of government, educational organization and tourism industries.

Points of creation of educational environment have been performed in this manuscript.

Coastal Conservation and Protected Areas



Crimean Marine Protected Areas: Present Status and Long-Term Policy

Evgeny B. Gol'din

Southern Branch of the National University of Biological Resources And Environmental Management, Crimean Agricultural and Technological University, PB 2223, 95043, Simferopol, Crimea, Ukraine
Tel: + 380-652-221389 Fax: + 380-652-221389
E-mail: Evgeny_goldin@mail.ru


The coastline of the Crimean peninsula is about 2,500 km long; meanwhile only 31 protected objects can be defined as marine protected areas (MPA). The most of them (20) were circumscribed in 1972 as the appenages of terrestrial reserves and were lacking of detailed scientific information, environmental background, demarcation and sustainable protection. This status cannot assure the conservation of biological and seascape diversity because of (1) fragmentation and small sizes of MPAs, (2) high environmental stress, (3) low level of protection, (4) inferiority of management, (5) imbalance of scientific needs and available research base, (6) excessive touristic and recreational activities, and (7) lack of professional and public awareness of the national and global actions needed to make effective MPA. The problems of MPAs in the Crimean coastal waters were reported in the governmental and NGO conservation programs. These documents contain some positive aspects concerning identification and inclusion of new protected sites into the natural reserve system, conservation and reconstruction of coastal and marine ecosystems, limitation of economic and commercial activity in critical habitats, identification and allocation of priority areas, etc., but they do not concern the creation and management of effective real MPAs. This situation needs prompt conservation-oriented actions directed for the Crimean coastal zone. The most important principles of MPA conservation strategy are

(1) MPA should expand to the entire coastal region (ecosystem-based management) rather than be a system of new protected small seascapes or enclaves. (2) The creation of integrated management unit consolidating various forms and levels of marine environment conservation. The establishment of integrated MPA (Biosphere Reserve or Natural Park) in the Crimea coastal zone is the most preferable variant of new structure combining the various levels of protection: no-take cores (centres, units) including existing (enlarged) and new protected sites, rock islands, etc.; buffer protected zones (limited economic, educational and touristic activity), and human-affected habitats (settlements, objects of boat traffic, fishery, diving, tourism). Network or system of MPAs including a wide circle of marine habitats can be an alternative (or parallel) to this structure. This approach is widely accepted throughout the world. It includes bubble concept in extensive sea area, efficiency of environmental management, integrity control of ecosystems and habitat conservation, as well as guarantee of sustainable using of marine resources. Besides the network allocates key areas for migratory and transboundary species, and substantive linkage of activity between marine and continental nature conservation structures. (3) Recommendations need to have a workable solution: e.g., creation of new MPAs is desirable out of sea areas which are involved in economical activities (intensive industry, oil and gas recovery, commercial fishery); vice versa, preservation of wildlife, untouched ecosystems, remoteness from settlements and poor development of recreation are the favourable factors. (4) Integrated environmental approach should be applied for MPA creation: ecosystems, communities, populations, habitats and migration routes (but not only rare, endangered or endemic species) are priorities. (5) The conservation of biological and genetic diversity (including non-commercial and non-target species), and ecosystem productivity; prevention of habitat destruction and disturbance, overfishing and incidental by-catch are necessary. (6) The conservation program for Crimean rivers (including the pollution regulation) is the guarantee of MPAs existence. (7) Realization of international treaties, agreements and assurances concerning environmental management and nature conservation, in particular Ramsar and Bucharest Conventions.



To Create Utrish Reserve at the Abrau Peninsula

O.A. Leontyeva (1), E.G. Suslova (1,2), S.L. Pereshkolnik (2,3) and M.N. Petrushina (1,4)

(1) Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, Russia
Tel: +7-495-9394717, Fax: + 7- 495-9328836
E-mail: leontolga@mail.ru
(2) E-mail: lena_susl@mail.ru
(3) Moscow Zoo, 123242 Moscow, Russia
Tel: +7 499 2555 375 Fax: + 7 495 6051 717
E-mail: solomon36@mail.ru
(4) E-mail: mnpetrushina@mail.ru


Investigation of the Western Caucasus coastal ecosystems are conducted since 1970 at the Abrau Peninsula. It is a small territory of arid-type Mediterranean subtropics. This area of low mountain landscape boasts a unique collection of principal Mediterranean tertiary relict flora, featuring such endemics as the juniper (Juniperus excelsa and J. foetidissima), the pistachio, and the Pinus brutia. The most ancient vegetative association is the pistachio-juniper woodland, where 62.4% of the species constitute the Mediterranean flora; while in oak and hornbeam forests the proportion of these species amounts to 40.9%. Only in places where the vegetation has been damaged through economic activities, this proportion is reduced to 29%. Near 70 plant species growing in remained natural communities are included into the Red Data Book (RDB) of Russian Federation (2001) and near 110 species - into the RDB of Krasnodarskij Kraj (2007), 10 - are listed in the RDB of IUCN. Diversity and richness of landscapes with different plant communities causes the biodiversity of animals. Many of them are rare, endemic, relict and included into the RDB of Krasnodarskij Kraj (2007) (about 56 invertebrates and 29 vertebrates) and some - into the RDB of Russian Federation (2001) and RDB of IUCN (Bufo verucosissimus, Testudo graeca and Elaphe longissima among the amphibians and reptiles). Herpetofauna of the Abrau Peninsula is quite rich and characterizes this region as the Mediterranean natural area. Their number in nature is reducing now because of the growing anthropogenic influence - pollution and transformation of the habitats.

The region of Abrau peninsula is suggested as one of the main conservation site on the Russian Black Sea coast due to the relatively low anthropogenic transformation and ancient history. The ecological situation becomes critical here nowadays due to the increasing of uncontrolled recreation within the narrow coastal zone and construction of pine-line and oil terminal near Novorossiysk. Russian Federation several times has adopted decisions on creating the natural reserve at Abrau Peninsula, the last - in 2001, in order to create the natural reserve in 2010. However, until now the works on it still hasn't started. Actually, currently different commercial organizations claim ownership of the territory, which is to be the natural reserve.



Cultural Resources



Coastal and Submarine Archaeology: Non-traditional Museum

Gh. Ragheb(1), N.S El-Baghdady(1,2) and H. Ayad(1,3)

(1) Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering,
University of Alexandria, Egypt.
Tel: +2010-5206790 Fax: +203-5465001
E-mail: ghadaragheb@hotmail.com
(2) E-mail: nadiaelbaghdady@yahoo.com
(3) E-mail: hany_m_ayad@yahoo.com


Authoritative and legitimizing; museums' messages can be powerful tools for changing or reinforcing public opinion. By regarding maritime terrestrial and underwater archaeological resources as museums in non-traditional settings, resource managers can use museum method to transmit a message of preservation and protection rather than consumption and exploitation.

This paper will analyze the underwater cultural heritage experience focusing on two aspects: 1) the importance of the management in-situ of this heritage as a first option, and 2) the importance of implementing 'non-traditional' methods for protecting and exhibiting valuable submerged sites. The cultural significance of such type of museum application is presented and discussed in the course of defining the term "museography"

It is concluded that a significant attribute of archaeological resources exhibited in situ is never "finished," a condition some museologists argue constrains displays in traditional museums. Because of their location in ever-changing environments and changes wrought by natural influences, particularly for submerged resources, displays of archaeological sites are not finished or static. Also nothing could better describe shipwrecks and other maritime sites in their original contexts. Finally, In situ resources provide a context of meaning often missing in static displays of objects behind glass in a traditional museum.



Coastal Cultural Heritage and Istanbul Historic Peninsula

Funda Kerestecioðlu(1), Serhat Baþdoðan(1,2)
and Cenk Hamamcýoðlu(1,3)

(1) Yýldýz Technical University, Architectural Faculty, 34349,
Beþiktaþ, Ýstanbul, Türkiye
Tel: + 90-212 383 70 70 /2602 Fax: + 90-212- 26105 49
E-mail: ozturk@yildiz.edu.tr
(2) Tel: +90 532 637 40 80, Fax: +90 212 261 89 29
E-mail: serhatbasdogan@yahoo.com
(3) Tel: 90 - 212- 383 26 43, Fax: 90 - 212 - 261 05 49
E-mail: chamamci@yildiz.edu.tr


Urban planners have been considering the renovation of Istanbul's coastal areas with an eye towards archaeological preservation, local sociology, the area's architectural heritage, and its regional transportation. However, the preservation of Istanbul's coastal heritage has not been given sufficient attention. In this paper, we argue that considerations of coastal cultural heritage should be integrated into the urban planning of Istanbul's Historical Peninsula. "In recent decades, several trends have combined to create an environmental in which cultural heritage can be considered an important resource for coastal sustainable development" (Pinder, 2003) (Vallega and Callegari, 2002). This paper is concerned with the role of cultural heritage in coastal areas, including quality of city life in the prospect of operating sustainable development-aimed strategies.



Coastal and Marine Ecology



Ecological State of the Gelendzhik Bay Waters

V.S. Arkhipkin, A.V. Poljakova and T.V. Poljakova

M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University,
119991 Moscow, Russian Federation
Tel: +74959392215
E-mail: victor.arkhipkin@gmail.com, anpol@mail.ru


The ecological conditions of Gelendzhik Bay waters are characterized by changes hydrochemical factors. The increase of the organic and biogenic substances concentrations occurs, first of all, under influence the anthropogenous factors. It conducts to eutrophication of waters. Until 2009 year basic parts of phytoplankton biomass consisted of the peridinium seaweed, that is the most tolerant to eutrophication and to pollution of waters. From 2009 year biomass of Rhizosolenia calcar-avis is more than other algae.



Changes in Plankton after Beroe ovata Invasion: Coastal Waters of the Black Sea, Crimea Region

Vdodovich Irina, (1) Klimova Tatyana and Zagorodnaya Yulia(2)

Institute of Biology of the Southern seas NAS Ukraine, Nahimov av., Sevastopol 99011, Crimea, Ukraine
(1) E-mail: vdodovich@mail.ru
(2 E-mail: artam-ant@yandex.ru


Despite positive tendencies which are noted in planktonic communities (z??- and ichthyoplankton) after Beroe ovata invasion, a complete recovery of a specific variety and the return of number of zoo - and ichthyoplankton to indicators which were observed before mass development of Mnemiopsis leidyi, have not occurred.



Muricid Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) in the Black Sea

Alisa Kosyan

Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, 119071 Moscow, Russia
Tel: + 7-499-135-18-78 Fax: + 7-495-954-55-34
E-mail: kosalisa@rambler.ru


Population structure and morphological variability as well as consumption rates and prey preferences of the muricid whelk Rapana venosa in the Black sea studied. The largest rapana specimens are found in the localities with enough food available. Rapana in the rest of the samples have lack of food and sizes several times smaller. The age structure of populations is characterized by lack of juvenile specimens. Results showed an average consumption of about 1 bivalve prey per day (or 0,789 g wet weight per day). Predation was species and size selective towards large specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis.



Present-Day State of the Attached Phyllophora Community in the Vicinity of the Novorossisk

Ulyana V. Simakova (1) and Olga V. Maximova(1, 2)

(1) P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, Moscow, Russia 117997
Tel: +7(499)1247996 Fax: +7 (495) 1245983
Email: yankazeisig@gmail.com
(2) Email: ovmaximova@mail.ru


Black Sea ecosystem has been transforming during no less than 30 years. One of the injured parts of the ecosystem is the Phyllophora community, which we investigated it in the vicinity of the Novorossisk. We collected samples from each type of microrelief (the top, the hollow and the reverse) on each level of the depth (3-25 m). Comparison of present-day data with previous showed that the biomass of Phyllopora decreased 2, 20, 200 times since 1970s for upper, middle and lower zones respectively. Calculated losses of Phyllophora epifauna exceeded 49 %, 95 % and 99% for upper, middle and lower zones respectively. Downward trend in Phyllophora biomass has not ceased since 2000. No remarkable recovering of Phyllophora communities was observed. Such heavy decreases could not pass unnoticed for whole ecosystem of the Sea. Recovering of attached Phyllophora didn't begin yet. And we cannot predict its speed. It may take years before previous state will be reached.



Impact of Bottom Relief on the Marine Ecosystems Sensitivity to Hydrological Conditions

S.K. Monakhov(1), V.F. Zaitsev(2) and O.I. Zornikova (3)

(1) Caspian Marine Scientific Research Centre, 14 Shiryaeva str., 414045 Astrakhan, Russia
Tel: +7 8512 30-34-70 Fax: +7 8512 30-11-63
E-mail: kaspmniz@mail.ru(2) FSEI HPE "Astrakhan State Technical University", 16 Tatischeva Str., 414025 Astrakhan, Russia
Tel / Fax: +7 8512 61-42-71
E-mail: viacheslav-zaitsev@yandex.ru(3) "Lukoil - Nizhnevolzhskneft" Ltd., 1 Admiralteyskaya str., 414000 Astrakhan, Russia
Tel: +7 8512 40-28-00 Fax: +7 8512 40-27-20
E-mail: OZornikova@nvn.lukoil.com


The article presents a new approach for identification and assessment of environmental sensitivity of marine ecosystems. To assess sensitivity, we suggest using three indices: impact power, sensitivity force and sensitivity level presented by changeability of internal and external ecosystem parameters. Temperature and water salinity are regarded as external (not dependent on the biota activity) parameters. The concentration of biogenic gases and salts (oxygen, nitrogen, phosphor, silicon) dissolved in water and dissolved and suspended organic matter is regarded as internal parameters (abiotic, but dependent on biota activity). It was shown that sensitivity of marine ecosystems to external impact can be influenced by bottom relief. According to results of research carried out in the Caspian Sea in 2006 - 2008, sensitivity of marine ecosystems to hydrological conditions increases as the depth decreases.

Coastal Landscapes


Coastal Landscapes in Greece: an Aerial Photo Atlas Approach

E. Karymbalis (1), Y. Melissourgos (1,2), C. Hadjimichalis (1,3)
and S. Kalogirou (1,4)

(1) Harokopio University, Department of Geography, El. Venizelou 70,
17671 Athens, Greece
Tel: +30 210 9549 159 Fax: +30 210 9514 759
E-mail: karymbalis@hua.gr
(2) E-mail: yormel@hua.gr
(3) E-mail: hadjimichalis@hua.gr
(4) E-mail: skalo@hua.gr


This paper presents some preliminary findings regarding research on Contemporary Greek Cultural Landscapes with special reference to coastal areas. This is part of a research project undertaken by Harokopio University - Geography Department in Athens. The research methodology relies heavily on 5 interconnected steps: a selection of an initial number of cases based on covering all NUTS II Greek areas; the construction of different groups of broad categories of landscapes; the use of low oblique aerial photo documentation as a means to provide with a visual representation of frequently bypassed aspects of landscapes; a multi-disciplinary engagement of a number of contributors coming from diverse backgrounds who deal with the interpretative analysis of cases; and finally the management and completion of an open-accessed website. Three examples of coastal landscape cases - Acheloos river, Kakia Skala and the island of Kimolos - illustrate the interconnection between physical procedures and human processes which shape together contemporary landscapes, while at the same time highlighting the importance of divergent interpretations.



The Caspian Sea Shores as Natural Laboratory for Coastal Landscape Geochemical Change

Nikolai S. Kasimov(1), Mikhail Yu. Lychagin(1), Alexander N. Gennadiev (1),
and Salomon B. Kroonenberg(2)

(1) Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119991,
Moscow, Russia
Tel: + 07-495-939 22 38 Fax: + 07-495-932 88 36
E-mail: lychagin@geogr.msu.ru
(2) Department of Applied Earth Sciences, Delft University of Technology,
Mijnbouwstraat 120, P.O. Box 5028, 2600 GA Delft, the Netherlands
Tel: + 31-15-278 60 25 Fax: + 31-15-278 11 89
E-mail: s.b.kroonenberg@citg.tudelft.nl


Global warming causes world-wide concern on the impact of sea-level rise on oceanic coasts. Predicting this impact is hampered by the slow pace of sea-level rise in the past (17 cm in the 20th century, 2.8 mm/year in the last 15 years; IPCC, 2007), and the complexity of coastal processes. The Caspian Sea, having experienced phases of sea-level rise of up to a hundred times the eustatic rate, offers accelerated real-world models of how coasts behave under such conditions. These data can be used to calibrate and validate existing simulation models of coastal geochemical landscapes behaviour, including behaviour of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. Long-term monitoring of the Caspian Sea shore zone landscapes allows revealing the environmental changes due to the whole cycle of sea-level changes. The first part of the cycle lasted for 50 years (1929-1978) and was characterized by the retreat of the sea, lowering of the ground water table, and general decrease in the degree of hydromorphism of the territory. The second phase of the cycle (1978-1995) corresponded to the rise in the sea level and the depth of the ground water, and to increase in the degree of water-logging of the soil cover.



The Landscape in Coastal Development through Comparative Studies

Pedro Fernández Carrasco

ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Profesor Aranguren 3, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Tel: + 34-620-11-58-54
E-mail: pedro.fernandez@upm.es


The landscape plays a very important role in the strategy of increasing the number of tourists that visit an area and especially it has become the base, and sometime the prime value, in many coasts around the world. However, coastal investment not always has matched the importance place's landscape and its tourism growth, leading to some significant environmental problems. This paper studies the coastal area of Cala Panizo in Almería Spain, Montego Bay in Jamaica, Nador Lagoon in Morocco, Herbey Bay in Australia, and Hoi An City in Vietnam. The five areas selected, even though they are very far from each other, are situated each one in a very attractive landscape and they have opportunities and risks in the understanding of managing the natural beauty of each one and translate it in to benefit to the entire actor in the coast in an environmental and sustainable way. The paper stresses the necessity to understand the value of a landscape to clearly define a development strategy that let participation of all the actors affected, especially the public participation, that drive the development to a desirable outcome, where cultural heritage and environment consideration should be placed forward in the tourism development agenda.



Coastal Tourism and Recreation



Mediterranean Coastal Tourism Facing Climate Change Uncertainties

A. Magnan

Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI), Sciences Po, 27 rue Saint-Guillaume, 75 337 Paris France
Tel: +33-145-497-670
E-mail: alexandre.magnan@iddri.org


This text aims to show that in addition to the uncertainties concerning the impacts of climate change, another major source of uncertainty must also be considered: that which arises from the evolution of tourist requirements and their attitudes towards coastal practices. We argue that these uncertainties cannot be used as an excuse to do nothing whilst waiting for more precise scientific knowledge to emerge. A number of principles for adaptation within a context of uncertainty are presented.



Global and Regional Climate Change and its Influence on Tourism

N. Pestereva

Sochi State University for Tourism and Recreation, Scientifically Educational Centre "The System Researches of Environment and Geoecological Safety of Recreational Territories", 26, Sovetskaya St, Sochi, Russia
Tel: +78622- 64-84-93 Fax: +78622- 64-88-84
E-mail: pnm_06@mail.ru


The urgency of research of global climate change is presently doubtless. Everything is closely connected with a climate, including tourism. The further rise in temperature of air, for example, in the south of Europe will lead to tourists will mainly have a rest on Northern and Baltic seas because in the Mediterranean will be too hot. The number of the tourists preferring beach tourism will be reduced to 20 %. Economic consequences of this fact can be rather considerable.

The global warming of climate over last decades influences practically all spheres of human ability and particularly influences on all regions of Globe, including the coastal territories of the Mediterranean and Black seas.



Investigation of Tourism Area Life Cycle Model in Lara Coastal Development

Nihal Senlier(1), Güliz Öztürk(1,2) and Reyhan Yildiz(1,3)

(1) Gebze Institute of Technology, Faculty of Architecture,
Department of City and Regional Planning, Istanbul-Turkey
Tel: +90 532 291 60 40 Fax: +90 262 653 84 95
E-mail: nsenlier@tnn.net
(2) E-mail: gozturk@gyte.edu.tr
(3) E-mail: ryildiz@gyte.edu.tr


Studies on the tourism coastal development have been on the rise since 1970's. Tourism sector which lead to socio-cultural and economic development and also population increase play an important role on urbanization of its region. Tourism effects on urbanization are characterized by spatial dynamics. Especially in coastal resort areas, tourism occur a very specific spatial morphology. The impacts of development to a resort, whether economic, physical, or socio-cultural, are the result of a complex process of interchange among guests, host communities, and destination environment. The understanding of changes in coastal resort morphology and the related processes is useful for tourism planning and sustainable development. Several descriptions and models for morphological evolution of coastal resorts are available in tourism literature.

Most popular one was Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC) model, which is developed by R. Butler in 1980, based on the evolution of coastal resorts. According to Butler, the stages of resort evolution are exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation, and decline or rejuvenation. Over these distinct periods, there are notable changes in the tourism groups, the available infrastructure, the natural and built environment, and the local community attitude towards tourism. Researches to test or modify Butler's model are an enduring feature. A number of authors have suggested that resort morphology goes through a predictable sequence of stages: from pre-tourism, to low density development, and from high density development to an urbanized state. The aim of this study is to investigate Lara Coastal Development through tourism area life cycle model.



Artificial Lagoons for Sustainable Tourism

Didem Yilmazer(1), Taylan Bagci(2) and M. Sedat Kabdasli(3)

(1) Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey
Tel: +90- 532- 4143919 Fax: +90- 216- 5930696
E-mail: didem_yilmazer@yahoo.com
(2) Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Tel: +90-212-2853714 Fax: +90-212-2853418
E-mail: bagcit@itu.edu.tr
(3) Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Tel: +90-21 -2853733 Fax: +90-212-2853418
E-mail: kabdaslis@.itu.edu.tr


Sustainable tourism is the kind of tourism development which avoids damage to the environment, economy and cultures of the locations. It is, therefore, possible only by conserving the resources and protecting environment. During the planning and designing phase of the buildings for the tourism related activities, sustainability must be criteria. This criterion must also be taken into account while constructing artificial lagoons that are the parts of tourism related investments.

In this study, an artificial lagoon which is planned to be constructed at Antalya in Turkey is taken as an example. This lagoon will mainly be designed for the marine tourism. This study investigates the possible circulation problems of the lagoon to avoid environmental damage. A numerical model in order to solve these circulation problems is also provided. With the help of this mentioned model, the circulation of the lagoon is analyzed by giving different flow rates from different points of the lagoon. As a result, the flow rate combination which can ensure the efficient circulation is obtained. During the analysis, the currents values are taken with the concern that the yachts anchored in the lagoon must not be affected by the agitation.



Marketing Research for Entertainment and Leisure Industry Services in a Tourist Region

N. Matyushchenko(1), E.Vidishcheva(1,2) and A. Levonyan(1,3)

(1) Sochi State University for Tourism and Recreation,
26-A, Sovetskaya str., Sochi, 354000, Russia
Tel/Fax: +7-8622-648-868
E-mail: subtropic@mail.ru
(2) E-mail: evgenia-vv@mail.ru
(3) E-mail: princessanna@mail.ru


Sochi has made a step to a higher stage of development when successfully applied for the 2014 Winter Olympic Games, claiming to become a world class health-resort. This status requires the realization of a whole number of improvement measures in each tourist industry of the resort-city. So the conducted scientific research, supported by the Russian Federal Agency for Education, is aimed to reveal the problems of the services market of the leisure and entertainment industry (LEI) in the Russian resort-cities (Sochi, Anapa, Gelendzhik), which share in the tourist services market of Krasnodar region is about 75 %.

The differences between the three resort cities in the field of entertainment and leisure industry organization were compared. A common view of both local residents and guest of the three resort cities about the leisure and entertainment industry market services via experts and consumers polling was formed. To make up for the absence of recent complex experimental study in Krasnodar region, the paper will present the practical aspects on market situation of the leisure and entertainment industry. In the last part suggestions to the industry development and improvement will be given to make the theory into practice.



Estimation of Stability of Recreational Development along the Russian Black Sea Coast

O. E. Arkhipova(1), G.V. Kovaleva(1,4), T. T. Tarasova(1,5),
V. V. Boyko(2,6) and V.A. Moskalenko(3,7)

(1) Southern Scientific Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences,
Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Tel: +7-863-2509805 Fax: +7-863-266-56-77
(2) Rostoblkompriroda, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Tel: +7-863-2509805 Fax: +7-863-266-56-77
(3) Southern federal university, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Tel: +7-863-2975228 Fax: +7-863-297-52-29
E-mail: arkhipova@mmbi.krinc.ru
(4) E-mail: kovaleva@mmbi.krinc.ru
(5) E-mail: tarasova@mmbi.krinc.ru
(6) E-mail: victorya_boyko@mail.ru
(7) E-mail: mosvik8@mail.ru


This paper describes methodological approach and methods for assessing and mapping the level of permissible recreational pressures to the Black Sea coast. The approach uses the techniques of systems analysis, mathematical modelling, GIS-technologies. The purpose of work is to develop recommendations for the determination of recreational load, its impact on coastal ecosystems.

The work is supported by RFBR ? 09-05-00194, 2009, Basic Research Program of the Presidium of RAS "The fundamental problem of the spatial development of the Russian Federation: an interdisciplinary synthesis".



Problems of Sustainable Development of the Sochi area as a Resort Agglomeration

G. Romanova, M. Bokov and V. Sharafutdinov

Sochi State University for Tourism and Recreation,
26-A, Sovetskaya str., Sochi, 354000, Russia
Tel: +7-8622-648-503 Fax: +7-8622-648-790
E-mail: university@sutr.ru


The paper gives statistical and analytical analysis of the one of two main economic bases of Sochi as a Resort agglomeration such as Tourism and Recreation Complex. The survey has been made upon scientific researches of 1990 - 2008 and has solutions for optimization of functional zoning, which should support the idea of creation of 8 town Sochi Agglomeration zoning instead of 4 that we have at the present time, summary and analysis of the Sochi area as a Resort Agglomeration scientific data.



Computer Simulation as a Forecasting Tool of Socio-Economic Dynamics (the Sochi Resort Region)

V. Ionkin(1) and A. Kopyrin(1,2)

(1) Sochi State University of Tourism and Recreation, Economic theory department, Russia, 354000, Sochi, Sovetskaya st., 26a
Tel: +7 8622 551338,
E-mail: ionsochi@mail.ru
(2) E-mail: kopyrin_a@mail.ru


This issue is devoted to urban dynamics research and modelling of Sochi resort region. Sochi is a Russian resort town, situated near the southern Russian border.

The method of research is a system-dynamic simulation. The model of socio-economic system of the city of Sochi was built in the software environment Powersim.

The purposes of modelling are: the forecast of the urban dynamics at preservation of the current conditions (a rating of the current management strategy, which is determined by a set of regulators); the analysis of functioning of a social-economic system - definition of possible ways of influence on a situation (selection of potential regulators); comparison of various scripts of the region development, proceeding from various administrative decisions (the choice between several regulators and their various combinations); planning budgetary charges supporting urban economy for the purpose of increasing the quality of life of the region inhabitants.

On this model were made several computational experiments, and scenario analysis, which results can provide the decision maker with the needed information and forecast data.



GIS Application for Assessment of Tourist and Recreation Capacity of Coastal Areas

Maria Belyaeva(1) and Vitaly Tatarnikov(2)

(1) St.-Petersburg State University, 7-9 Universitetskaya Naberezhnaya
199034 St.-Petersburg, Russia
Tel: + 7- 960-235 57 55
E-mail: belyaeva@astranet.ru
(2) Caspian Marine Scientific Research Centre, 14 Shiryaeva st.,
414045 Astrakhan, Russia
Tel: + 7-8512-30 34 70 Fax: + 7-8512-30 11 63
E-mail: kaspmniz@mail.ru


Application of GIS technologies for sustainable tourism development, as well as implementation of ecological approach to evaluation of recreational capacity and land use planning by using integrated assessment of environmental sensitivity (IAES) is discussed in this paper. The IAES method is illustrated by the case study for the eastern coast of the Middle Caspian Sea, Aktau oblast, Kazakhstan. Data obtained through the field survey are presented in the form of environmental sensitivity map developed with GIS software. The results of the study prove that the use of IAES method provides a reliable estimation of the environmental capacity for the selected territory. Sensitivity maps allow for an easy visual selection of the most appropriate tourism sites, with regard to existing and permissible/ expected rate of anthropogenic load. GIS technology is recommended as an important tool for environmental assessment and monitoring, as well as for development strategy in tourism and recreation, and planning priorities in environmental protection activities.



Geomorphological Criteria of Recreational Potential of the Crimea and the Caucasian Black Sea Coasts

Orlova M.S. (1) and Ignatov E.I. (1, 2)

(1) Moscow State University named by M.V. Lomonosov, Geography Faculty, 119911 Moscow, Russian Federation
Tel: + 7 926 952 29 82
E-mail: orlova-maria@mail.ru
(2) Tel: + 7 916 341 69 16
E-mail: ign38@mail.ru


Not only for recreational, but also social, economic and environmental reasons, are coasts among the most important natural resources. Due to geological and geomorphologic processes such as persistent erosion, sea level rise, and man's impact such as harbour improvement and past unsound public and private development practices, Crimean and Caucasian coasts are destroyed.

However, governments of Russia and Ukraine do little to actively manage that geodynamic zone. Without scientists study and monitor and increased attention, marine coasts will continue to suffer from chronic erosion, thus diminishing public recreation opportunities, storm buffering capabilities, habitat, and property values and eventually affecting the quality of recreation potential of these regions.



Black Sea Coastal Zone between Anapa and Novorossiysk as a Recreational Resource

Marina Krylenko

Southern Branch of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, 353467, Gelendzhik, Russia
Tel: +7(86141)28069 Fax: +7(86141) 28089
E-mail: krylenko@mail.ru


Morphology of the coastal zone between cape Anapskiy and cape Myskhako (the Black Sea coast of Russia) is considered in this paper. Role of the topographic features for the recreational complex functioning and development at this part of the coast is estimated. It is determined that the big relative elevations and deficit of the beaches are main factors hindering development of the recreation complex on the considered coast section.


Beach Management


The Art of Beach Management

A. T. Williams

Swansea Metropolitan University, Mt Pleasant, Swansea, U.K.
Tel: +44(0)1792 481106 Fax: +44 (0)1792 651 760
E-mail: allan.williams@virgin.net


Beach management is a young multi-faceted discipline embracing both physical and socio-economic strands, and it is the integration of these, that constitutes 'management.' Ideally, it is part of a countries overall Integrated Coastal Management policy. However, this is frequently not in place, so management is done on an ad hoc basis. Management should be based upon a conceptual viewpoint backed up by field data. The fundamental management basis is an understanding of the coastal processes at work (waves, currents, sediment budgets, etc), and this is an aspect frequently missing from a beach manager's background. To this can be added socio-economic aspects i.e. preferences and priorities of beach users, litter and dog control, concessions, lifeguards, toilets, showers, bye law introduction, dune control, etc. Analysis, planning, management and monitoring are key ingredients for the success of any guideline plan. The essence of sound beach management is that it has sound aims, objectives and a correct methodological approach. Ideally, within any team of beach managers, a range of skills can be found on which to graft common project aims.

The Historiography of First Beach, Qingdao, China

Hongbin Liu(1), Yujie Zhao(1), A T Williams(2) and M.R Phillips(2,3)

(1) Ocean University, Qingdao, China
E-mail: hliu@qingdaonews.com
(2) Swansea Metropolitan University, Mt Pleasant, Swansea, UK
Tel: +44(0)1792 481106 Fax+44 1782 651 760
E-mail: allan.williams@virgin.net
(3) E-mail: mike.phillips@smu.ac.uk


Qingdao First beach, also known as Huiquan beach, is located in Huiquan Bay, Qingdao, China. A century ago, First beach was a simple fishing beach. In 1897 Germany invaded Qingdao and in 1904, First beach was re-named "Victoria Beach, and the "Stuolan Hotel" (now renamed the Huiquan Hotel) built for foreign tourists. As a result of these facilities, German authorities advertised in Japan, Hong Kong, etc. with a view to making First beach the centre of East Asia's entertainment industry. In December, 1922, the Chinese government repossessed Qingdao and improved First beach via new changing rooms, etc. In the mid-1930s, large-scale changing rooms, including 30 men-only and 30 woman-only rooms were added. It was an era that precipitated the growth of many hotels, dance halls, bars, cafes and other entertainment establishments, together with diving platforms, piers, life guard stations. When Japan invaded Qingdao in 1938, the beach was severely damaged as troops demolished changing rooms to construct trenches. After New China was founded (1949), Huiquan beach was upgraded many times by the local government. In 1984, the people's government of Qingdao restored First beach, the construction area reaching 20,000 square metres, with >60 buildings, which doubled the beach area, and in 2008 the Olympic Games sailing events were held off the beach.

A Case Study of Beach User Perceptions in Sile, Istanbul

Perihan Paksoy(1) and Nurdan Çolakoglu(2)

(1) Beykent University, Sisli-Ayazaga Yerleþkesi, Ayazaða, Sisli-Istanbul
Tel: (0212) 444 1997 Fax: (0212) 867 50 66
E-mail: perihanpaksoy@beykent.edu.tr
(2) Beykent University, Beylikdüzü Yerleskesi, Beykent,
Tel: (0212) 444 1997 Fax: (0212) 867 55 66
E-mail: nurdanc@beykent.edu.tr


In order to facilitate public participation in the preparation of plans and policies for sustainable development, acquiring the perception of the public and community based planning become vital. Acknowledgement about perceptions of the end-users could lead the decision makers in adopting these thoughts in their policies and consequently can lead to content visitors.

User perceptions can become vital especially at beach preferences as cleanliness, safety and amenities are some of the apparent factors that will affect. With the awareness of probable adaptation of beach users' demands into policy recommendations, a case study has been carried out at Black Sea Coast of Istanbul at Þile beaches. Þile has been chosen in this study purposefully as it is a touristic district of Istanbul which has aimed to earn Blue Flag award but has not been awarded yet. Secondly, it receives high amount of visitors especially during the peak periods in weekends; as it has a very close location to the city, people are choosing here most of the time just for the day. In this research with factors about human use of beach and impacts like cleanliness and sufficiency of amenities (showers, toilets, changing cubicles, parks etc.) and the number of lifeguards are studied. Beach users' perceptions are collected by means of a questionnaire randomly applied during the week time. To include beach users' demands into policy recommendations and utilize the conclusions and recommendations, the researchers aim to acknowledge the municipality about the results.


Shoreline Management


Comparison between the ABL System and the Multibeam for the Survey of the Beach Morphology

Nunzio De Nigris(1), Mentino Preti(2) and Matteo Monti(3)


(1) Environment Agency of Emilia-Romagna Region, 40122 Bologna, Italy
Tel: + 39-051-528 12 21 Fax: + 39-051-528 12 61
E-mail: ndenigris@arpa.emr.it
(2) Environment Agency of Emilia-Romagna Region, 40122 Bologna, Italy
Tel: + 39-051-528 12 10 Fax: + 39-051-528 12 61
E-mail: mpreti@arpa.emr.it
(3) Zoppellari & Associati s.r.l., 48121 Ravenna, Italy
Tel: + 39-0544-40 48 72 Fax: + 39-0544-28 11 36
E-mail: matteo@zeiassociati.it


The coast along Emilia-Romagna Region is about 130 km of sandy and low coast. In the second half of the 20th Century, this territory has been highly urbanized due to the development of recreation activities, hotels, restaurants, bathing establishments and all the related infrastructures. These new buildings have stiffened a system that is naturally dynamic; therefore, any withdrawal of the coastline has become unsustainable.
The beach erosion processes, amplified by a high subsidence of the territory, have highly increased the risk of seawater ingression, especially in the event of sea level rise. In order to handle the coast line and to plan actions to contrast the erosive phenomena, it became necessary to evaluate the rate of beach loss.

In 1983, the Emilia-Romagna Region created monitoring nets for the survey of subsidence, of the coast line and of the zone of active sediment movement (topographic and bathymetric net) of the entire regional coast. The topo-batymetric net has been surveyed in 1984, in 1993, in 2000 and recently in 2006. The necessity to perform more frequent and more detailed surveys has increased the use of new methods and new technologies (GPS, singlebeam and multibeam).
In the 1990s, the technology for the ALB (airborne LiDAR Bathymetry) topographic and bathymetric survey became widespread within the civil ambit. The ALB system measures the water depth, even when it is very shallow, using a scanner installed on an aircraft. This system allows to survey a large number of quoted points in a little of time. It is possible to contemporarily survey emerged and submerged beach, as well as all the emerged structures.

In order to evaluate the accuracy of the ALB System, the 2006 surveys done by Tenix Lads Corporation -on behalf of ENI- has been compared with those done using echosounder systems. Both surveys have been analyzed and compared. The results of the statistical analysis are very encouraging, indeed, when the water transparency is good, the difference of the measured quotas (depth) is equal to: ?(ALB-Echo)mean= -17±9m. This difference tends to increase when the water transparency decreases. In terms of costs, ALB measurements are estimated to be in a range of about 1000-2000 €/km2 for areas with minimum surface of around 50-100 km2. As such, they are competitive when compared to measurements taken using echosounder methods.


One Meter of Subsidence along Emilia-Romagna Coast in the Last 55 Years: Effects and Defence Strategies

Mentino Preti(1) and Nunzio De Nigris(1,2)

(1) Environment Agency of Emilia-Romagna Region, 40122 Bologna, Italy
Tel: + 39-051-528 12 10 Fax: + 39-051-528 12 61
E-mail: mpreti@arpa.emr.it
(2) Tel: + 39-051-528 12 21 Fax: + 39-051-528 12 61


Since 1950 the coast of Emilia-Romagna has experienced an extremely marked increase in subsidence due to anthropogenic reasons, mainly due to groundwater abstraction through thousands of wells distributed along the shore, and natural gas wells from fields located mostly in the central stretch of the coast both on land and offshore.

In view of the lack of precise and reliable data, in 1984, Emilia-Romagna Region put in place a monitoring network for subsidence all along the coast.

The grid has been surveyed four other times. The last survey was carried out by ARPA in 2005 for Emilia-Romagna Region. Besides the data collected through the geodetic control survey of the grid, ARPA worked also on the tracing back in time of the phenomenon - in the period 1992-2006 - through interferometry - a technique using data from satellite radars.

The comparison of recent data with those from the levelling exercise carried out by Istituto Geografico Militare (Army Geographical Institute) in 1950 has revealed that more than 100 km of shore south of the Po River have sunk around 1 metre in 55 years.

In order to protect a shore which is already quite low-lying, whose inland area, especially its centre-north part, comprises 160,000 hectares of land lying below sea level, between 1947 and 2007 the Region and the State built more than 70 km of defences against erosion, and protected circa 80 km of coast with embankments, walls, artificial
dunes, etc. In the last 23 years, circa 25 km of beach have been artificially regenerated with 8 million cubic metres of sand, in order to keep beaches sufficiently large to improve seawater defences and foster tourist economy.

This enormous effort has also included the construction of dams and waterworks to convey surface water to coastal areas, thus reducing groundwater pumping and consequently subsidence.

The latest project, now in its implementing stage, involves the inhabited area and the shoreline of Cesenatico, which has sunk 115 cm in 55 years. In order to stop the intrusion of high water and the flooding the old town centre, mobile barriers (Porte Vinciane) have been built along the harbour channel together with a complex system of works inland and along the coast.



Minimising Conflicts among Stakeholders within a Littoral Cell

Luigi E. Cipriani (1) and Enzo Pranzini(2)

(1) Regione Toscana - Direzione Generale delle Politiche Territoriali e Ambientali, Via di Novoli 26, 50127 Firenze, Italy
Tel: 0039 0554383835
E-mail: luigi.cipriani@.regione.toscana.it
(2) Università di Firenze - Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra. Borgo Albizi 28,
50122 Firenze, Italy
Tel: 0039 0552479241
E-mail: epranzini@unifi.it


The 20-kilometer-long Apuo-versilian beach comprises coastal segments falling under many different administrations: two Regions (Liguria and Tuscany), two Provinces (La Spezia and Massa-Carrara), six Municipalities (Ameglia, Sarzana, Carrara, Massa, Montignoso and Forte dei Marmi), one Interregional River Basin Authority (Magra River) and one Port Authority (Marina di Carrara Port).

This stretch of coast is fed by Magra River, empting onto the Ligurian Sea at the northern end of the littoral cell. Due to the reduction of the sediment input from its watershed, the entire coast has been experiencing severe coastal erosion, with shoreline retreat of approximately 800 meters at the river mouth from 1880 until now. Since its construction, which begun in 1920, the Marina di Carrara harbour has been intercepting southwards littoral transport, thus converting the Marina di Carrara historical shoreline retreat in beach accretion, and therefore increasing erosion down the coast.

Several coastal defences have been built south of the harbour since the 1930s and from the river mouth to the south (in Ligurian territory) since the 1960s. These defences were built without a wide scale strategy, and each new structure became a cause for conflicts among different stakeholders as the coast started to be intensively used for tourist and leisure activities.

Recently, the different administrations responsible for coastal management started to implement new projects in a more integrated manner, planning at cell scale and considering the management of river sediments to be a fundamental part of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, in light of EUROSION view and recommendations.

Information sharing and stakeholder participation was part of this strategy. Beach evolution monitoring was performed and discussed in open meetings and people expectancies and suggestions were carefully considered.

This work of reducing conflicts among stakeholders allowed adopting more sustainable coastal defence strategies, aimed at balancing the benefits and reducing the negative fallouts to the neighbouring communities.

This paper traces the history of this stretch of coast and analyses the evolution of coastal defence strategies during the last century.



Concepts and Science for Coastal Erosion - the CONSCIENCE project

Marcel Marchand(1), Pedro Fernández(2)
and Maria Ferreira(2,3)

(1) Deltares, PO Box 177. 2600 MH, Delft, The Netherlands
Tel.: +31 15 285 8558 Fax: +31 15 285 8710
E-mail: marcel.marchand@deltares.nl
(2) EUCC Mediterranean Centre, c/Escar 6-8, 10 A, 08039, Barcelona, Spain
Tel: + 34-93 224 73 40 Fax: + 34-93 224 73 41
E-mail: p.fernandez@eucc.net
(3) E-mail: m.ferreira@eucc.net


All around Europe coastal managers are confronted with the problem of coastal erosion which causes significant economic loss in two aspects: on the one hand, loss of property, infrastructure and beach width annually leads to millions of Euros economic damage; on the other hand, measures to control erosion are also expensive. Therefore the consensus among coastal practitioners and scientists is increasing regarding the need to address the coastal erosion problem at its roots. However, even though sediment cells models and monitoring systems are becoming more sophisticated, it is difficult to put this scientific knowledge into practice due to a lack of appropriate coastal governance.

The EU-FP6 CONSCIENCE project has been launched in 2007 under the belief that something must be done to enhance the implementation of a scientifically based sustainable coastal erosion management in Europe. We have been testing the scientific concepts and tools in six pilot sites around Europe. This paper discusses the project choices to properly fill the gap between science and policy by producing and disseminating the scientific results to a wide but targeted audience.

Environmental Risk Management


Sensitivity Atlas of the French Mediterranean Coast

Carolyn Scheurle(1), Hervé Thébault(1,2), Céline Duffa(1,3)
and Dominique Ami(4)

(1) Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN),
IFREMER BP 330 83507 La Seyne-sur-mer, France
Tel: +33 4 94 30 49 47 Fax: +33 4 94 30 44 16
E-mail: carolyn.scheurle@ifremer.fr
(2) E-mail: herve.thebault@ifremer.fr
(3) E-mail: celine.duffa@ifremer.fr
(4) GREQAM - IDEP Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR 6579) du CNRS, Centre de la Vieille Charité 2 13236 Marseille cedex 02, France
Tel: +33 4 91 14 07 89 Fax: +33 04 91 90 02 27
E-mail: dominique.ami@univmed.fr


Accidental pollution, as one of the major risks linked to human activities in the marine environment, is rendering the coastal zone vulnerable. The vulnerability not only depends on e.g. the extent and type of pollution, but also on the environmental and socio-economic characteristics.

Exposed to e.g. an accidental release of hydrocarbons, the coastal ecosystems and the wide range of environmental services they deliver and that sustain considerable socio-economic activities such as fishing and tourism are impacted. Various past cases demonstrate the dimensions such impacts and losses may have.

In order to face accidental marine pollution and its consequences, specifically adapted coastal management strategies and decision making processes are needed. Within this context, our study aims to contribute to a decision support tool focussing on the French Mediterranean.
By evaluating environmental (i.e. physical characteristics and marine biodiversity) and socio-economic aspects, the sensitivity of French Mediterranean coastal environments to accidental marine pollution is assessed. To determine such "values" (monetary and non-monetary) as well as their geographic distribution subsequently allows a "sensitivity mapping", of which first results and applications are presented and discussed.



Coastal Vulnerability Assessment in Djerba (Tunisia)

V. Duvat(1) and A. Magnan(2)

(1) LIENSs (Littoral, Environnement, SociétéS), UMR Université de la Rochelle-CNRS 6250 - Institut du Littoral et de l'Environnement, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17 000 La Rochelle
Tel: +33-546-507-647
E-mail: virginie.duvat@univ-lr.fr
(2) Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI) - Sciences Po - 27 rue Saint-Guillaume, 75 337 Paris
Tel: +33-145-497-670
E-mail: alexandre.magnan@iddri.org


This contribution presents an innovative methodology for assessing vulnerability of coastal tourism areas to natural hazards in the prospect of supporting the development of wise planning and management practices in contexts of limited institutional, technical and human capacities. The case study of Djerba is exposed.


Examination of Shipping Accidents along the Turkish Straits by Using Correspondence Analysis

Ayse Tas(1) and Güler Bilen Alkan(2)

(1) Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 07050, Antalya, Turkey
Tel: +90 0535 898 6689
E-mail: atas@deu.edu.tr
(2) Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
Tel: +90 0532 420 6792
E-mail: gbalkan@istanbul.edu.tr


The Turkish Straits, consisting of the Istanbul Strait (the Bosphorus), the Sea of Marmara and the Canakkale Strait (the Dardanelles) are very complicated and narrow waterways connecting the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea arm of the Mediterranean. The Turkish Straits carries substantial safety risks for navigation, life and environment because of heavy national and international marine traffic. This situation increases also the risk of shipping accidents into the Turkish Straits coastal areas. The shipping accidents (collision, capsizing, fire, grounding, strike etc.) have a direct influence on the marine fauna and flora due to oil pollution. In this study, the data of 910 shipping accidents occurred in the Turkish Straits Areas during the period between 1997 and 2008 were analyzed by Correspondence Analysis. Correspondence Analysis is an exploratory technique designed to investigate the relation between row and column variables of a two-way contingency table, similarities and differences among categories graphically. In this study, it is aimed to facilitate the interpretation of similarity, difference and relations among the categorical variables related shipping accidents such as the main causes of accident, accidents' types, and accidents' locations, State of flag, gross tonnage and type of vessels involved in the accidents and to see the outcomes on a graphic.


Environment Management Risk Programs in Northern Coastal Zone of Black Sea - the Romanian Sector

I. Nichersu(1), E. Marin(1,2) and C. Trifanov(1,3)

(1) Danube Delta National Institute for Research and Development, Department of Research, Babadag Street, 165 - 820112 Tulcea, Romania
Tel: +0040-240-524546 Fax: +0040-240-533547
E-mail: iuli@indd.tim.ro
(2) E-mail: jenica@indd.tim.ro
(3) E-mail: kris@indd.tim.ro


The aquatic environment plays an increasing role and gets more and more importance in the modern life. The statement "there's no life without water" is as true as "there is no water without life". River Floodplain plays an important role on human's coastal zone like Danube Delta (Antipa, 1910).

The importance of Danube, as one of main water source in Europe, also as central element in ecological balance defining and maintaining is incontestable, wherefrom resulting as necessary an intervention, proportional with its significance, both for the current generations and for the future ones, in a model of sustainable development and common intervention of the countries part into Danube River Basin, development and intervention that must work in all essential domains for insuring the right to a living standard proper for the health and welfare of individuals, especially in Danube Delta, the wetland in the Black Sea Coastal Zone.

Scientific and Technical Fundamentals of Flood Risk Management Plan on Lower Danube Floodplain and Danube Delta is main issue in two Romanian governmental programs:

1. Ecological and Economical Resizing in Lower Danube Floodplain (REELD)-2007.
2. Master Plan - support for sustainable development in Danube Delta Biosphere Preserve, Tulcea county/ Romania-2005

The priorities of REELD:

1. Reassessment of settlements defence lines against floods;
a. Elaboration of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) for reappraisal of defence lines of settlements against floods with ring dyke located at the limits situated in general urban plan (PUG)
b. Elaboration of floods scenarios based on hydraulic modelling
2. Polders restoration in order to recover natural functions of wetlands including conservative interest areas (SCI, SAC, SPA, national);
a. Establishment of floods and the regime of water in polders that resulted through drying of former lakes Bistre?, Potelu, Suhaia, Greaca, C?l?raþi etc. due to its rehabilitation.
3. Reassessment of economic activities in agriculture/fish polders into a mixed concept economic and room for water.
a. Reappraise of Economic activities in polders based on cost/benefit ratio for investments in defence dykes maintaining and other existing hydro technical buildings
b. Establishment of leaded flooding regime at maximum levels of Danube, which threaten defence systems (Nichersu and Constantinescu, 2007).

Formation of State Concept of Risk Management in the Environment

T. Gvarliani(1) and N. Kresova(2)

(1) Sochi State University, Sochi, Russia, Taxes and Taxation Department.
Tel: 89184068342 Fax: 8622- 64-88-68
E-mail: antana-tata@mail.ru
(2) Tel: 89183079807
E-mail: kresovans@rambler.ru


According to possible results risks can be divided into two groups: pure and speculative. It is impossible to avoid risks completely. As the risk can be justified or unjustified, so the skill to risk is the skill to draw the line between risks in every specific case. The main ways of reducing risk level has been given.


Future Economic Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Mediterranean Seafood: First Assessment Summary

Nathalie Hilmi(1), Denis Allemand(1), Ross A. Jeffree(2)
and James C. Orr(2,3)

(1) Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Avenue Saint-Martin,
MC-98000 Monaco, Principality of Monaco
E-mail: hilmi@centrescientifique.mc, allemand@centrescientifique.mc
(2) IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories,
MC 98000 Monaco, Principality of Monaco
E-mail: R.Jeffree@iaea.org
(3) LSCE/IPSL, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Bat. 712 - Orme, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
E-mail: James.Orr@lsce.ipsl.fr


There is increasing concern with regard to future impacts of ocean acidification on marine biodiversity and the seafood products that are dependent on it. Hence, deleterious effects of OA on fisheries and aquaculture are likely to have significant economic and social consequences, with regard to both economic losses and the need to identify appropriate adaptation strategies. Such regional assessments of the possible socio-economic impacts of OA on seafood are also relevant to the formulation of governmental policy, in relation to addressing the full social costs of carbon emissions and potentially strengthening the economic arguments for the mitigation of carbon emissions. Here we give a summary report on the status of following sets of data required to evaluate the likely scales of future economic losses to Mediterranean fisheries and aquaculture, a) direct and indirect effects of reduced pH Mediterranean species of socio-economic significance, b) effects of different global atmospheric carbon emission rates on future acidity of Mediterranean seawater, and c) the economic values of shellfish from both wild fisheries and aquaculture industries. The areas of uncertainty that warrant further investigation are also identified.





Coastal and Marine Pollution



Hydrological Structure and the Pollution of the Caspian Sea

V.O. Tatarnikov, O.I. Esina, V.G. Petrechenkova, O.V. Veremeenko
and O.I. Kholina

Caspian Marine Scientific Research Centre, 14 Shiryaeva str., 414045
Astrakhan, Russia
Tel: +7 8512 30-34-70 Fax: +7 8512 30-11-63
E-mail: kaspmniz@mail.ru


The article presents the results of pollution research in different water bodies and water types of the Caspian Sea. Six types of pollutants distribution in different water types of the Northern Caspian were singled out. These pollution types characterize pollutants behaviour in the mixing area of marine and riverine waters. The article presents the results of analysis of pollutant substances distribution among different water bodies of the Caspian Sea.



Pollution Assessment of the Volga-Caspian Canal Marine Part

E.V. Gavrilova(1), S.K. Monakhov(1)
and E.N. Makarova(2)

(1) Caspian Marine Scientific Research Centre, 14 Shiryaeva str., 414045
Astrakhan, Russia
Tel: +7 8512 30-34-70 Fax: +7 8512 30-11-63
E-mail: kaspmniz@mail.ru
(2) FSI "North Caspian Directorate for Provision at Sea / Technical Ensurance", 106, 4th Dorozhnaya Str., 414018 Astrakhan, Russia
Tel / Fax: +7 8512 59-30-50
E-mail: Emakarova75@mail.ru


The results of special research presented in the article point to the leading position of the Volga-Caspian Canal (VCC) in the transit of pollutant substances from the Volga to the North Caspian. As a result, marine area of the Volga-Caspian Canal is characterized by increased pollution level. The research helped to identify marine or riverine origin of pollutants and revealed pollutants which concentration exceeded the norms set for fishery water bodies (MPC).


Assessment of the Chemical Discharge into the Caspian Sea from the North-Eastern Caucasus Slopes

R.A. Tarasova(1), A.M. Butaev(2) and
G.A. Monakhova(3)

(1) Caspian Marine Scientific Research Centre, 14 Shiryaeva str., 414045
Astrakhan, Russia
Tel: +7 8512 30-34-70 Fax: +7 8512 30-11-63
E-mail: kaspmniz@mail.ru(2) Dagestan RAS Research Centre, 45 Gadzhieva Str., 367025 Makhachkala, Russia
Tel: +7 8722 67-06-20 Fax: +7 8722 67-46-65
E-mail: butaev@caspiy.net(3) Dagestan State University, Ecology department, 21 Dakhadaeva Str., 367025 Makhachkala, Russia
Tel / fax: +7 8722 67-46-51
E-mail: gavochka@mail.ru


The article presents the results of assessment of chemical discharge of the rivers Terek and Sulak into the Caspian Sea, based on 30-year-long (1978-2007) series of observation of water discharge, chemical composition and riverine water pollution. The total discharge of mineral salts, biogenic elements and pollutant substances was calculated. The article reveals the contribution of the discharge from the North-Eastern Caucasus slopes into the total river discharge from the Russian territory.


Quantification of the Degree of Inorganic and Organic Pollution of Bejaia Harbour

K. Madani (1), F. Benmeziane (2), F. Aloui (2)
and M Chibane (2)

(1) Biomathematics Biophysics, Biochemistry and Scientometry Laboratory, University of Bejaia, 06000, Bejaia, Algeria
Tel: +213772186224 Fax: +21334214762
E-mail: madani28dz2002@yahoo.fr
(2) E-mail: dsa-ubejaia@gmail.com


The goal of this work is the evaluation of the degree of inorganic an organic pollution of Bejaia harbour, during which we are committed to highlight the impact of the rejections on the quality of seawater. For this purpose, seventeen stations distributed around the three basins were selected and some physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and conductivity, COD, BOD, SPM), and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with eight metallic elements traces in dissolved and particulate phases (Cu, Zn, Fe, Co, Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni) were reported. The results obtained revealed a relatively good situation for the temperature and conductivity, and a low pH. The level of organic contaminations was very important, this was confirmed by the strong concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (>3 g/l), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) (10-234mg/l) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) (27 -223 mg/l) and the moderate dissolved oxygen contents in particularly in basin of "arrière port". The spectral analysis of the extracts showed the presence of the PAH, and the quantitative analysis confirmed a high level of contamination for all the stations (5-7 ?g/l). This work indicate in addition, the existence of highly heavy metals pollution, including the most toxic (lead and nickel) with concentration ranging from 6700 to 738 mg/ kg for Pb, from 24138 to 27 mg/kg for Ni (particulate phase), however, iron was the most abundant metal with predominance of 62.48 % in dissolved phase and 33.44 % in particulate one. This study also revealed that the particulate phase is 1000 times more polluted than the dissolved phase.




The Diagnosis of Main Pollution Sources of the Mixing Zone of Marine and Riverine Waters

O.I. Esina, R.A. Tarasova and
V.O. Tatarnikov

Caspian Marine Scientific Research Centre, 14 Shiryaeva str., 414045
Astrakhan, Russia
Tel: +7 8512 30-34-70 Fax: +7 8512 30-11-63
E-mail: kaspmniz@mail.ru


The article presents the results of the development of diagnostics method for tracking main pollution sources in the mixing zone of marine and riverine water. This method reveals that low-molecular (aromatic) hydrocarbons enter the north-western part of the Caspian Sea with the river runoff, while high-molecular aromatic hydrocarbons enter this part with the advection of marine water from the deep-water sea part. The advection is as well the main source of the water area pollution with mercury, while river runoff is mainly responsible for pollution with copper. The obtained data show that the mixing zone of marine and riverine waters can be polluted not only from the river, but also from the sea part.

Biogeochemical Activity of Pollutantsin Estuarine Waters

I.G. Radovanova (1), N.V. Popova (2) and
A.A. Kurapov (3)

(1) Caspian Marine Scientific Research Centre, 14 Shiryaeva str., 414045
Astrakhan, Russia.
Tel: +7 8512 30-34-70 Fax: +7 8512 30-11-63
E-mail: kaspmniz@mail.ru(2) 'Caspian Oil Company' Ltd., 10 Guzhvina prospect, 414014 Astrakhan, Russia.
Tel: +7 8512 39-56-16 Fax: +7 8512 39-56-327
E-mail: popovaNV@caspoil.com(3) 'Research Institute of the Caspian Sea Problems' Ltd., 12/10 Kirova Str., 414000 Astrakhan, Russia.
Tel / fax: +7 8512 60-07-53
E-mail: iprocam@mail.ru


The article describes methods suggested by the authors for the assessment of biogeochemical activity of pollutant substances (PS). The applications of these methods to analyze the data of environmental monitoring shows that in the shallow coastal waters (at coagulation stage of marginal filter) water pollutants actively enter other components of marine environment; at the marine border of the coastal waters (at biofiltration stage of marginal filter) part of pollutants is dissolved. The developed methods for the assessment of pollutants biogeochemical activity are advised to be used for diagnosing the pollution in estuarine areas.



Variation of Suspended Substances Amount Inputting to the Coastal Zone by Natural Processes

V. Krylenko

Southern Branch of the P .P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS,
353467, Gelendzhik, Russia
Tel: +7(86141)28069 Fax +7(86141) 28089
E-mail: ovos_oos@mail.ru


Natural and anthropogenic sources of the marine pollution of the Gelendzhik coastal zone are considered in this paper. Natural phenomena and processes are main sources of suspended sediments in the coastal zone. The rapid changes of the gross volume of pollutants that enter recreational shore zone of Gelendzhik coastline of Black Sea occur due to action of natural processes and phenomena. The results of this work can be applied in deciding of problems in complex management of coastal area in regions specializing on recreation.




Notes on Source Apportionment of Sediment PAHs

Bedri Alpar(1) and Selma Ünlü(1,2)

(1) Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, 34116
Vefa, Istanbul, Turkey
Tel: + 90 212 528 25 39 Fax: + 90 212 526 84 33
E-mail: alparb@istanbul.edu.tr
(2) E-mail: su@istanbul.edu.tr


Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), a family of chemical compounds formed during incomplete combustion or in high-temperature pyrolytic processes involving fossil fuels, are deposited in aquatic sediment from a variety of sources. The hydrophobic nature of these tracer compounds provides a good understanding of their transport in the environment. Parent PAH ratios and principal component analysis-multiple regression models can be used to apportion the sources of sediment PAHs. These tools were tested for 12 USEPA priority PAHs measured from the sediment samples of two adjacent aquatic environments, the Gulf of Gemlik and Lake Iznik. The level of sediment PAHs was closely related with riverine/terrestrial and atmospheric inputs, together with seaport and fishing activities. The highest level of anthropogenic inputs was dominated along the highly-populated eastern and southern coasts of the Gulf of Gemlik. On the basis of principal component analysis and various PAH ratios, the majority of sedimentary PAHs in front of the main industrial-tourism ports and anchoring areas in the Gulf of Gemlik originate from pyrogenic sources together with petrogenic PAHs. A mixed pattern of pyrolytic and slightly petrogenic input of PAHs can be observed at the coastal parts of the Lake Iznik influenced by riverine inputs where the contribution of unburned petroleum sources was higher. An important contribution of atmospheric inputs was detected for both cases, due to heating with coal, petroleum coke particles and biomass burning from various sources.

Identification of Secondary Pollution Hotspots in Oil and Gas Bearing Water Areas

M.V. Voynova (1), N.V. Popova (2) and
A.A. Kurapov (3)

(1) Caspian Marine Scientific Research Centre, 14 Shiryaeva street, 414045
Astrakhan, Russia
Tel: +7 8512 30-34-70 Fax: +7 8512 30-11-63
E-mail: kaspmniz@mail.ru(2) 'Caspian Oil Company' Ltd., 10 Guzhvina prospect, 414014 Astrakhan, Russia
Tel: +7 8512 39-56-16 Fax: +7 8512 39-56-327
E-mail: popovaNV@caspoil.com(3) 'Research Institute of the Caspian Sea Problems' Ltd., 12/10 Kirova Str., 414000 Astrakhan, Russia
Tel / fax: +7 8512 60-07-53
E-mail: iprocam@mail.ru


Secondary pollution (SP) denotes the process of re-entering of pollutant substances (PS), previously buried in bottom sediments, into the water. Identification of SP hotspots is particularly important for the oil field development in the shallow shelf areas as it is followed by sediment spreading. To identify secondary pollution hotspots, we suggest a complex of methods: detection of positive asymmetry of PS spreading in the near-bottom water layer, application of sliding correlation method, analysis of PS biogeochemical activity. The article presents the results of this technology application to identify SP hotspots in the license area belonging to "Caspian Oil Company" Ltd. Located in the shallow-water zone of the North Caspian.


Hydrocarbon Contamination in Sediment Offshore Yeþilýrmak River, Black Sea, Turkey

Selma Ünlü(1,2) and Bedri Alpar(1)

(1) Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, 34116
Vefa, Istanbul, Turkey
Tel: + 90 212 528 25 39 Fax: + 90 212 526 84 33
E-mail: su@istanbul.edu.tr
(2) E-mail: alparb@istanbul.edu.tr


Input of harmful substances, oil in particular, constitute an essential threat on the semi-enclosed ecosystem of the Black Sea, especially as hot spots scattered near main sea ports and river discharges. Most of the Anatolian rivers carry the loads of leading provinces of Turkey in terms of industrial production. This paper attempts to measure the level of aromatic hydrocarbons on the shelf sediments in front of the Yeþilýrmak River and characterize their type, by measuring total aromatic hydrocarbons [TH] contents and evaluating synchronous excitation/emission scans (SUVF). In addition to chrysene, which is useful for comparability of the results with available data, a combined reference material obtained from seven different crude oils used and transported in the Black Sea region, called as Thetis-Oil, was used as reference of fluorescence signals. Total aromatic hydrocarbon levels ranged from 32 to 122 µg/g. On the basis of SUVF spectra of families representing aromatic structures, 5-ring PAHs, generated by pyrolysis reactions during combustion of fossil fuels such as Benzopyrene derivatives, are dominant for distant muddy stations while 3-4 ring PAHs are dominant for the coarse grained shallow sediments close to the river mouth, where we have also detected a remarkable amount of vanadium.



Coastal Engineering



Statistics of Black Sea Extreme Storms

Leonid Lopatoukhin(1,2), Alexander Boukhanovsky(2)
and Ekaterina Chernysheva(2,3)

(1) St Petersburg State University, Dep. Oceanology, 199178 St. Petersburg, 10 Line 33/35, Russia. Tel: +7-812-7473923, Fax: +7-812 6359356,
(2) St Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics
and Optics, St. Petersburg, Russia. 197101, St. Petersburg, Kronversky 49
Tel: +7 812 337 6491 Fax: +7 812 337 6490
E-mail: avb_mail@mail.ru.
(3) E-mail: chereks@yandex.ru


November 2007 storm in the Black sea provoke a lot of shipwrecks. It is shown, that this storm is not unique (in contrast to some official statements). Historical analogy to this storm is famous storm of November 1854, when fleets of England, France and Turkey near Sevastopol had been annihilated. These events were one of the acts to investigate statistics of Black sea storms. Model SWAN is used for continuous 40-years hindcasting of wave fields. Classification of strong (hs>5m) storms is made. A storm presented as spatial pulse moving over a sea. The parameters of this pulse are specified. Four classes (types) of storm are selected. Return period (5, 10 and 100 years) for each class is estimated.



Spectral Wave Data Assimilation in SWAN Wave Model

Yang-Ming Fan(1), Beng-Chun Lee(2) and Chia Chuen Kao(3)

(1) Coastal Ocean Monitoring Centre, National Cheng Kung University, 701 Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Tel: + 886-6-2744058 ext.15 Fax: + 886-6-2098853
E-mail: yangming.fan@gmail.com
(2) Department of Environmental and Hazards-Resistant Design, Huafan University, 22301 Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Tel: + 886-2-26632102 ext. 4566 Fax: + 886-2-26639003
E-mail: beng@huafan.hfu.edu.tw
(3) Department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 701 Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Tel: + 886-6-2757575 ext.63265 Fax: + 886-6-2098853
E-mail: kaoshih@mail.ncku.edu.tw


The purpose of this study is to enhance the accuracy of numerical wave forecast with data assimilation. The present paper is to investigate the potential use of the spectral observations from the pitch-and-roll buoys which supply measurements in near-real-time for assimilation in an operational forecast system. And how to do optimal interpolation when we only have one buoy on deep ocean will be discussed in this study. And then, the impact of the assimilation of those measurements on the wave analysis and forecast is studied over several typhoon periods in 2006, by comparing runs with and without assimilation.



Evolution of Short Wave Spectrum under Unstable Wind

Michael N. Pospelov (1), Alexey V. Kuzmin (1,2)
and Ilya N. Sadovsky (1,3)

(1) Space Research Institute, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow, Russia
Tel: +7-495-3335078 Fax: +7-495-3331056
E-mail: Michael.Pospelov@iki.rssi.ru
(2) E-mail: Alexey.Kuzmin@asp.iki.rssi.ru
(3) E-mail: Ilya_Nik_Sad@mail.ru


The paper presents some results of the experiment CAPMOS'05 performed on an oceanographic research platform in the Black Sea. The platform, located 600 m off shore was equipped with a set of contact and remote sensing instruments. Conventional contact sensors were used for direct measurements of atmosphere and sea boundary layer parameters (wind speed and direction, air temperature, water temperature and salinity profiles, etc.) whereas microwave and IR radiometers were used for remote sensing measurements of surface temperature and wave parameters. In particular, microwave Ka-band radiometer measurements were applied for gravity-capillary wave spectrum retrieval using the original techniques based on angular measurements. The spectrum component evolution under unstable wind conditions has been investigated. It has been demonstrated that the spectral components in the vicinity of the maximum of the wave curvature are the most sensitive to the wind velocity variations.



Mild Slope Equations in Wave Propagation Modelling

Asu Ýnan(1) and Lale Balas(2)

(1) Department of Structure Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Gazi University, 06500, Teknikokullar/ Ankara, Turkey
Tel: +903122028890, Fax: +903122120059
E-mail: asuinan@gazi.edu.tr
(2) Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture,
Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe/ Ankara, Turkey
Tel: +903125823217, Fax: +90312230843


Wave propagation is one of the important subjects of the coastal engineering. Waves transform while propagation from deep water to shallow water. One of the wave propagation solution methods is mild slope equation. Mild slope equation considers refraction and diffraction phenomena together for regular waves. The basic assumption is that is . Here, h is water depth and k is wave number. General mild slope equation is proposed by Berkhoff in seventies. It includes shoaling, reflection, refraction and diffraction. With the addition of higher order bottom effects like bottom curvature and square of bottom slope to the general mild slope equation, the limitation of MSE is overcome. So the extended mild slope equation can be applied to the rapidly varying topographies. Another modification of mild slope equation is taking into account dissipations due to bottom friction and wave breaking. Until now, many researchers have been worked on the MSE. They have been dealt with the extension of mild slope equations and various types of solution procedures in numerical modelling of mild slope equations. Today, a mild slope equation can involve refraction, diffraction, shoaling, reflection, higher order bottom effects, harbour resonance, dissipations due to bottom friction and wave braking, current effects and spectral approach together. Mild slope equations have three types: Elliptic, hyperbolic and parabolic mild slope equations. Each of them has advantages and disadvantages compared with the others. Numerical solutions depend on the type of MSE. In this paper, the theoretical development of mild slope equation will be presented and some numerical solution procedures will be discussed.


Irregular Wave Transformation in the Coastal Zone

Sergey Kuznetsov (1) and Yana Saprykina(1)

(1) P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, 117997, Moscow, Russia
Tel: +7-499-124 62 22 Fax: + 7-499-124 59 83
E-mail: kuznetsov@ocean.ru
(2) E-mail: saprykina@ocean.ru


On the base of analysis of data of laboratory and field experiments was revealed that during the transformation of the waves due to nonlinear energy transfer between harmonics the amplitude-frequency structure of individual waves varies quasi-periodically in space, as well as in time. The phase shift between the first and second harmonics strongly depends on the main direction of energy transfer. Because the ratio between the amplitudes of the first and second harmonics of waves also varies in time, waves with small first harmonics can have large higher harmonics and there is the effect of "filling" of intervals between wave groups with large amplitudes of first harmonics by wave groups with large amplitudes of highest wave harmonics. The statistical reliability of "filling effect" is proved by significant values of correlation function between envelopes of first and highest harmonics.



Dependence of Suspended Sand Concentration on the Irregular Waves Spectra Form

Ruben Kos'yan (1), Boris Divinskiy (1) Joachim Grüne(2), Igor Podymov(1),
Chris E. Vincent(3), Alireza Ahmari(3) and Hocine Oumeraci(3)

(1) The Southern Branch of the P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gelendzhik-7, 353467 Russia
(2) Coastal Research Centre FZK, Merkurstrasse 11, 30419 Hannover, Germany
(3) School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, U.K.


In 2008 an experiment was carried out in Hanover Large Wave Channel aimed to study regularities of bottom sediment suspending under irregular waves. 65 series of measurements were performed. Every series lasted for 20 minutes. A spectrum of initial waves was primordially was set as JONSWAP spectrum with assigned collection of parameters. Distribution of suspended particles in vertical direction was recorded independently with the help of optical turbidimeters, acoustic profilograph, and by mechanically with the help of pump. An influence of the spectrum form on the mean profile of suspended particle concentration was researched.



Graded Sediment Longshore Transport

E.V. Bondareva(1) , I.G. Kantardgi(2) and Y.I Dreizis(3)

(1) Sochi State University of Tourism and Recreation,
E-mail: bondareva_05@mail.ru
(2) Dept. of Water Res. and Sea Ports, Moscow State Civil Eng. University
E-mail: kantardgi@yandex.ru
(3) Dept. of Information Technologies,
Sochi State University of Tourism and Recreation
E-mail: Yurid2006@yandex.ru


The uniform approach by definition of size of the charge of a longshore flow of deposits for conditions of coarse-grained and sandy beaches is considered. The approach is based on power dependences. Factors of dependences are calibrated by experimental data for a concrete site of coast and calculations of the charge of the deposits, using technique of the Ackers-White. Comparison of calculations of longshore transport of deposits with the data of laboratory experiences is executed. Necessity of the account of sorting of a material on grain sizes along a cross structure of a beach slope is shown. The model of rearrangement of a beach in a vicinity of cross hydraulic engineering constructions is developed. The model uses the developed design procedure of deposits and takes into account diffraction of waves in a zone of a wave shadow of a construction.



Beach Erosion Prediction for the Black Sea Coast due to Sea Level Rise

A.F. Velegrakis(1,2) , A. Lehmann(2,3) , I. Monioudi(1), G. Giuliani(2), C. Herold(2,3),
K. Allenbach(2,3), A. De Bono(2,3) and I. Radchenko(2,3)

(1) Department of Marine Sciences, School of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene 81100, Greece
E-mail: afv@aegean.gr
(2) UNEP-DEWA-GRID, International Environment House IEH-1, CH-1219, Chatelaine, Geneva, Switzerland
E-mail: Lehmann @grid.unep.ch
(3) Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Batelle, CH-1227 Carouge, Geneva, Switzerland


The objective of the present contribution is to assess, at the basin-scale, the range of sea level rise-driven retreat of beaches of the Black Sea. Web-GIS tools have been used to build a database of the spatial characteristics of all Black Sea beaches and some of their attributes. This information has been used in conjunction with an ensemble of 6 coastal morphodynamic models to assess the range of reduction of beach width under various rates of sea level rise. The analysis shows that sea level rise may have highly significant impacts on the beaches in the Black Sea region. The study suggests that, based on the low IPCC estimate of 0.22 m sea level rise by 2100, up to ~70% of the beaches may lose as much as 20% of their maximum width, ~22% of beaches may lose about 50% and ~3.5% of Black Sea beaches may be entirely lost. Based on the high IPCC estimate of 0.50 m sea level rise by 2100, the results suggest a dramatic impact on Black Sea beaches, as up to ~17 % of the Black Sea beaches may be entirely lost, with up to ~52% losing more than 50% of their maximum width and over 90% of beaches losing more than 20%. The beach erosion risk may, however, be even larger, as the estimations do not take into account other drivers of beach erosion, such as the significant reduction of the riverine sediment supply over the recent decades.



Investigation of Beaches Suitable for Nourishment in Rize Province, Turkey

S. Karasu(1), Y. Ceylan(2), M.S. Güner(1,3)
and V. Süme(1,4)

(1) Rize University, Rize Vocational School, Rize, Turkey
Tel: +90 464 2280032 Fax: +90 464 2280025
E-mail: skarasu@rize.edu.tr
(2) Rize University, Department of Fisheries, Rize, Turkey
E-mail: yuceym@hotmail.com
(3) E-mail: msguner@hotmail.com
(4) E-mail: velisume@msn.com


Black Sea Coast Motorway was recently built along the shore (about 600 km), and a number of beaches were destroyed. Now there are a couple of short beaches in Eastern Black Sea region. People need new beaches. On the other hand, in recent years, plateau and nature tourism have begun to gain an importance in the Eastern Black Sea. Recreational beaches together with nature tourism will be an option for tourists who intend to come to region. Additionally, sandy beaches will help to protect the new road from the waves.

Due to the reasons, mentioned above, suitable beaches for nourishment were investigated in this study. Five regions have determined for this purpose in Rize province. One of them is in city centre at walking distance; another is 3 km away from city centre. One of them is in Iyidere town, and two of them are in Cayeli town. Profiles and bathymetric topography were determined. Onshore portions of beach were surveyed using standard survey levelling techniques. The hydrographic survey, for the offshore portion, was carried out with a small boat mounted echo-sounder. Distance from the beach was determined with a Total Station.
Beach sand data were collected during surveys. Samples were collected at several cross-shore elevations across profiles, from dunes to closure depth. Sieve analyses were conducted for the sand samples.

Measurements were performed with 6 months period. First measurements were conducted in October 2008, and second in June 2009 to see the summer versus winter beach profiles. Measurements will continue 6 months period for one year. According to the results, suitable beaches will determine for nourishment.



Morphology of the Salient of Tuerredda Beach (Sardinia, Italy) and Hydrodynamic along the Shoreline

Andrea Atzeni (1) and Andrea Sulis

(1) University of Cagliari, Department of Land Engineering, Piazza D'Armi,
09123 Cagliari, Italy
Tel: +390706755312 Fax:+390706755310
E-mail: aatzeni@unica.it
E-mail: asulis@unica.it


On sandy shores, offshore obstacles create wider beaches, termed salients and tombolos, due to sediment deposition in their lee. The Authors quantified the shape and dimentions of salient formed in the lee of a natural reef and island in south Sardinia (Italy) and found that morphological results were in good agreement with previous investigations through aerial photographs of the coastlines of south eastern Autralia and New Zeeland. This paper presents some preliminary results on the salient morphology and complex hydrodynamic behaviour near an island. The beach investigated in this work, known as the Tuerredda beach, is located in the south coast of Sardinia, the shoreline being characterised in the central part by a salient-shape due to the homonymous island. It is expected that the shoreline would be complex in its evolution over time due to the high variability of wave-inducedcurrents and the random instability of the near natural mouth of a seasonally ephemeral stream.




Methodology to Classify Exposure Risk to Wave Actions in the Northwest Coast of Portugal

Carlos Coelho(1) and Catarina Arede(1, 2)

(1) Dep. of Civil Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Tel: + 351-234 370 098 Fax: + 351-234 370 094
E-mail: ccoelho@ua.pt
(2) E-mail: ccarede@ua.pt


Due to the risk of constant instability of the coastal zones, it is important to use tools to help management and planning, with the goal of reducing Human losses, destruction in structures and coastal buildings and also to preserve the natural environment, typical of these areas. Thus, to develop methodologies of vulnerability and risks classification of coastal zones due to the wave climate energy is required. Vulnerability and risk coastal zones classification can help to support the political decisions and to define intervention priorities.

To evaluate the coastal vulnerabilities and risks in the stretch Caminha-Espinho, in the Northwest coast of Portugal, 616 points were chosen, located in a coastal width of five kilometres. Then, methodologies of USGS (2004) and Coelho (2005) were applied. These methodologies consider several parameters analysed separately, allowing an objective classification in different classes. Based on parameters classification and corresponding weight importance, global vulnerability, global consequence and total risk classification is estimated. The results of these methodologies were compared with coastal and planning management tools existent in Portugal, like POOC (1999) and its document revision (POOC, 2007), corresponding to Coastal Management Plans, and also Littoral Risk Maps (CEHIDRO, 1998).




Coastal Modification Impacts on the Caspian Rapid Sea Level Changing

H. Khoshravan(1), H. Barimani(1,2), S. Roohanizadeh(1, 3)
and S. Nakhjiri(1,4)

(1) Head of Caspian Sea National Research & Study Centre, Water Research Institute, Ministry of Energy, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran
Tel/Fax: +98-0151-2261405
E-mail: h_khoshravan@yahoo.com
(2) E-mail: hamed_barimani@yahoo.com
(3) E-mail: somi_rouhani@yahoo.com
(4) E-mail: sara_nakhjiri@yahoo.com


In the main part of the 20th century constructing hard structures have usually been the preferred option for controlling a range of beach problems, including beach erosion and longshore drift. The replacement of sandy beaches of the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea in the Amirabad complex free zone with port groins and seawalls and other coastal perseveration structures (jetties, break water) have caused great damages concerning environmental parameters and beach erosion hazard development in the area. In fact in this research we are measuring the impacts of coastal modification on the beach erosion hazard and beach retreatment condition. Selecting Miankaleh Region as complex free zone with high engineering activities put pressure on the resort area. Nine transect sampling stretch from shore line to the 10 meter depth were defined and 36 sedimentary sample were taken from the sea bed (1, 3, 5,10m depth). After conducting laboratory tests all the data were analyzed from the sedimentary dynamic parameters view point : (grain size, sediment size distribution, mean, median, skewness, kurtosis, standard deviation, mineralogy composition and so on). Also Miankaleh region beach structure and morphodynamic conditions were measured with satellite images interpretation and field survey measuring. Data results show that from 1978 till now the average rate of beach retreatment rapidly increased by last sea level rising and coastal constructions caused the sea level tendency of progression increased in this region. Also the erosion vulnerability hazard increase in the east part of studied area and deposition processes have been developed in the west part of the Amirabad region. Shoreline retreat, sediments erosion, shift the beach type to more dissipative to cellular condition, owing to rip and mega rips development as the huge potential for greater offshore and longshore transport of sediment, beach profile change, Scouring of the adjacent beach and finally major changes in beach planform, morphodynamics and shoreline stability are the most important beach modification impacts in the studied area. As a conclusion the eastern part of Amirabad beach zone seems the most susceptible and vulnerable area considering coastal modification and rapid seal level changing. So it is important to concentrate our sustainably attention on this region.


New Structure of Protective Seaside Wall with Application of Composite Materials

A.E. Ushakov, Y.G. Klenin, A.V. Pankov and S. N. Ozerov

Science and Technology Testing Centre ApATeCh-Dubna
ApATech -Company Applied Advanced Technologies, Russia
Tel: +7(495)287-12-92
E-mail: T.Bulanova@apatech.ru


Preparation for the Sochi Olympic Games 2014 requires new solutions in the building of seashore infrastructure. For the expansion of transport carrying capacity a new structure of protective seaside wall with the use of FRP has been suggested. Technical requirements for the structure have been developed, designing; production and installation of protective seaside wall testing section have been executed. Periodical instrumental and visual monitoring is fulfilled for the wall state-of-the-art control.



Modernization of Coast Protection Structures from Sea Waves with Application of Composite Materials

E. S. Ashpiz(1), A.O. Egorov(1,2) and A.E. Ushakov(3)

(1) Moscow State University of Railway Engineering, Moscow, Russia
Tel: +7(495)681-19-13
E-mail: geonika@inbox.ru
(2) E-mail: egorov_alexandr4@mail.ru
(3) ApATe?h -Company Applied Advanced Technologies, Russia
Tel: +7(495)287-12-92
E-mail: T.Bulanova@apatech.ru


In a southern part of Russia at the Black Sea coast influence of sea waves essentially complicates work of the railway of Tuapse-Adler. Existing protection frames of a railroad line from influence of sea waves do not provide full traffic safety. Traditional concrete walls it is necessary to carry duration of term of building, the big weight and susceptibility of sea corrosion to lacks and rotting. For elimination of lacks concrete walls the hi-tech design is developed and constructed of the composite materials, possessing in smaller weight and the increased service life in comparison with traditional means.



Wastewater Discharge and Thermoaline Conditioning in South Cesenatico (I) Coastal Area near Breakwaters

Maurizio Luca Mancini

Department of Structural, Transport, Hydraulic, Survey and Territory Engineering. DISTART-Faculty of Engineering-Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna. Via Risorgimento, 20136-Bologna, Italy
Tel: (39) 512093752 Fax: (39) 512093263
E-mail: maurizio.mancini@unibo.it


Field of the present survey is the discharging system of Rubicon River, near South Cesenatico coastal zone, characterized by emerged breakwaters. In dry weather conditions, main part of discharged freshwater and treated effluents from WWTP outfall almost constantly into the transition volumes of the Cesenatico harbour channel, and sea mouth provides to regulate discharge into sea according with unsteady tidal flow. In this case are guaranteed good thermoaline mixing and discharged volumes receive a sanitising effect by salinity and pH on microbial contamination. Vertical dispersion provides limitation of algal blooms due to intrusion of nutrient in surface stratified layers. On the contrary, in the south part of the investigated area, where higher are ground slope, small estuaries as Rubicone outlet, receive sea water by tidal oscillations within a few hundred meters from coastal line and flowrates present flow prevalently directed to sea with a continuous outlet of freshwater in surface. The present work describes thermoaline conditions and mass transport during a measurement summer campaign in a typical tidal daily outflowing configuration. The research is carried out by a multiparameter probe inside the estuary of Rubicon River confined by breakwaters and in surrounding coastal sea. The behaviour of vertical profiles of parameters gives account of the confinement into an upflowing surface layer of main part of freshwater discharge. Data are collected in order to validate and to permit calibrations of a 3D mathematical model in progress to apply in the described area.





Water Quality Estimation for the Russian Black Sea Coastal Zone

L. Prokhoda-Shumskih (1) and Y. Dreizis (1, 2)

(1) Sochi State University of Tourism and Recreation, Dept. of Information
Technologies, 26A Sovetskaya Str., 354000 Sochi, Russia
Tel: + 8-8622-68 91 05 Fax: + 8-8622-648-790
E-mail: prohoda_net@list.ru
(2) E-mail: Yurid2006@yandex.ru


In connection with last years, increasing recreational and industrial loading on the Black Sea coast of Krasnodar region, the ecological condition of Black sea coastal waters represents huge interest. In the big degree it concerns to studying features of natural seasonal and spatial variability of the biogenic elements, which are a basis of functioning planktonic and benthos ecosystems.

Quality management of the sea water in the resort regions is a major direction of methodology of integrated coastal zones management (ICZM), maintenance of sustainable development of coastal regions. One of the tools of an estimation of ecological damage to the sea water environment is the mathematical modelling of the appropriate processes.


Modelling of Oil Spill

Orhan Aydin(1), Asu Inan(2) and Lale Balas(3)

(1) Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe/ Ankara, Turkey
Tel: +903122319223 Fax: +903122308434
E-mail: orhan.aydin@ubak.gov.tr
(2) Department of Environmental and Technical Research of Accidents, Inst. Science and Technology, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey
Tel: +903125821259 Fax: +903122323226
E-mail: asuinan@gazi.edu.tr
(3) Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe/ Ankara, Turkey
Tel: +903122319223, Fax: +903122308434
E-mail: lalebal@gazi.edu.tr


Oil tanker accidents in seas cause serious problems to marine environment, especially when these accidents occur close to coastlines. To minimize the impact of tanker accidents on marine environment some measures might be taken if oil slick movement could be predicted in advance. Oil spill trajectory and fate models have been developed since the early 1960's to simulate oil movement on the water surface in order to take immediate action and some necessary measures after such accidents. Mediterranean Sea being among the world's busiest waterways is many times subject to oil spill accidents. In this connection a study has been carried out by giving special attention to Mersin coastlines. In this study, a 2-D Oil Spill Model has been developed and applied to Mersin Coastlines. The model is based on the 2-D oil spreading equation and considers horizontal dispersion, advection, diffusion, evaporation and shoreline deposition. Since evaporation process is the main cause of rapid volume reduction during the fate of oil spill, a special emphasize has been given to its modelling. Results obtained from the model have been compared to some known values cited from different studies on oil spill modelling. The comparison shows good conformity.




3D Modelling System of Bottom and Bank Erosion

V. Maderich (1), S. Fenical (2), Igor Brovchenko(1),
K. Terletska(1) and Vladimir Shepsis (2)

(1) Ukrainian Center of Environmental and Water Projects, Glushkov av. 42 Kiev 03187 Ukraine
Tel: + 38 044 5266187 Fax: +38 044 5266187
E-mail: vladmad@gmail.com
(2) Coast and Harbor Engineering, Inc, 110 Main Street, Suite 103, Edmonds, WA 98020, USA
Phone: 1 425 7786243 Fax: 1 425 7786883
E-mail: vladimir@coastharboreng.com


A three-dimensional Lagrangian sediment transport model was developed to simulate sediment transport, deposition, and erosion in the marine environments. The model is applicable for sediments consisting mixture of cohesive and non-cohesive sediments. The model can be coupled with three-dimensional hydrostatic, and non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic models, coded in sigma-coordinate system. The stochastic differential equations describing transport processes in a Lagrangian framework were solved in Random Displacement Model approximation. The model was compared with the laboratory experiments.



Modelling of the Navigation Channel Impacts on Coastal Zone of the Danube Delta

I. Brovchenko, V. Maderich

Ukrainian Centre of Environmental and Water Projects, Glushkov av. 42, Kiev, 03187, Ukraine
Tel: +38 044 5266187 Fax: +38 044 5266187
E-mail: brovchik@env.kiev.ua


The spreading of the turbidity plumes that appears after dumping of dredged material can affect marine environment. The objective of this study is estimation of concentration of sediments in the turbidity plumes caused by dumping in result of dredging works as a part of construction and maintenance of Deep Water Navigation Channel from the Bystry Arm in the Danube Delta to the Black Sea. The 3D hydrodynamics model SELFE and 3D Lagrangian sediment transport model were used in these simulations. The results of simulations allow choosing dumping site and regime of dumping that minimize effect of works on marine environment.



Coastal Hydrodynamics



Air-Sea Interaction Monitoring at the Offshore Platform

Natalia Y. Komarova(1), Yury N. Goryachkin(2), Alexander S. Kuznetsov(3),
Paolo Pampaloni(4), Michael N. Pospelov(1), Irina A. Repina(5,1), Mikhail T. Smirnov(6)
and Stefano Zecchetto(7)

(1) Space Research Institute, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow, Russia.
Tel: +7-495-3334256 Fax: +7-495-3331056
E-mail: Nata.Komarova@asp.iki.rssi.ru
(2) Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Kapitanskaya 2, 99011 Sevastopol, Ukraine
E-mail: yngor@alpha.mhi.iuf.net
(3) Experimental Department of Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Academica
Shuleykina 9, Katsiveli, 98688 Crimea, Ukraine
E-mail: edmhi@ukr.net
(4) Institute of Applied Physics, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto
Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy
Tel: +39-055-5226462 Fax: +39-055-5226467
E-mail: P.Pampaloni@ifac.cnr.it
(5) Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Pyzhevsky 3, 109017 Moscow, Russia
Tel: +7-495-9518549 Fax: +7-495-9531652
E-mail: repina@ifaran.ru
(6) Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Vvedenskogo sq. 1, 141190
Fryazino, Moscow reg., Russia
Email: smirnov@sunclass.ire.rssi.ru
(7) Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127
Padova, Italy
E-mail: s.zecchetto@isac.cnr.it


The paper presents some results of the experiment CAPMOS'05 performed at an offshore oceanographic platform in the Black Sea during June 2-20, 2005. The experiment was aimed at air-sea coupling investigations by means of direct and remote measurements with radiometers and microwave radar. A specialized research platform managed by the Marine Hydrophysical Institute is located on the shelf slope approximately 600 m to the south of Crimea coast, Ukraine. Spectral parameters of wind and waves were estimated from direct and remote measurements. Comparison of radar and radiometric data shows satisfactory agreement. Parameters of sea and atmospheric turbulence were measured while the temperature front passed the platform. It is demonstrated that the front intensified the turbulence in the air and in the water boundary layers and significantly increased energy flux across the water-air interface.



Vessel Wakes in Coastal Areas, Numerical Modelling and Impact Analysis

Pavlo Kolomiets(1) , Scott Fenical(2) , Vladimir Shepsis(2) and Mark Zheleznyak (1)

(1) Ukrainian Centre of Environmental and Water Projects, Glushkov av. 42
Kiev 03187 Ukraine
Tel: (38044)5266187 Fax: (38044)5266187
E-mail: pavlo@ucewp.kiev.ua
(2) Coastal and Harbour Engineering, Inc, 110 Main Street, Suite 103, Edmonds, WA 98020, USA
Tel: 1-425-7786243 Fax: 1-425-7786883
E-mail: vladimir@coastharboreng.com


Two numerical models, Vessel Hydrodynamics Longwave Unsteady (VH-LU) model and Vessel Hydrodynamics Boussinesq Wave (VH-BW) model have been developed, tested, and used in various coastal projects to evaluate possible impacts from ship traffic on shorelines erosion and waterfront structures. The examples of application of VH-LU and VH-BW modelling systems for analysis of vessel wakes impact on shoreline erosion and waterfront structures together with their description are presented in the paper.



Black Sea Tsunamis and Paleotsunami Studies on the Thrace Coasts of Turkey

Yildiz Altinok(1), Bedri Alpar(2), Naside Özer(1), Selma Ünlü(2), Engin Meriç(2), Atike Nazik(3),
Niyazi Avsar(4), Nuray Balkis(2), Hande Aykurt(1), Seyfettin Tas(2)

(1) Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, 34320, Avcýlar, Istanbul, Turkey
Tel: + 90 212 473 70 25 Fax: + 90 212 473 71 80
E-mail: yaltýnok@istanbul.edu.tr
(2) Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management,
34116 Vefa, Istanbul, Turkey
Tel: + 90 212 528 25 39 Fax: + 90 212 526 84 33
E-mail: alparb@istanbul.edu.tr
(3) Adýyaman University, Adana, Turkey
E-mail: anazik@adiyaman.edu.tr
(4) Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey
E-mail: avsarn@cu.edu.tr


It is identified that 23 moderate tsunamis hit the Black Sea's coasts during the last 2000 years. Some of these tsunamis had been catastrophic at some vulnerable spots of the coast, flooding coastal areas and drowning a few thousand people in towns and villages; such as the ones in 544/545 and 1598. Tsunamis may leave their fingerprints typically in low-energy depositional environments such as coastal wetlands, lagoons and places protected from the sea by sandy barriers. Such places protect tsunami deposits from post-depositional erosion. The topographic conditions of the Black Sea coastline of Turkey are not favourable in preservation of marine flood deposits. A few low lying beaches or marsh-filled depositional sedimentary basins on the Thrace coasts may have geomorphologic potential, even usually intercalated with fluvial effects of nearby creeks, to record and keep the clues of historical tsunami impacts. Yet there have been relatively few studies of the processes associated with tsunami sediment transport, their deposition and nature; the present study attempts to understand if a coarse grained sedimentary unit mixed with marine shell fragments observed in a trench in Kýyýköy could have been related to a historical tsunami. The soil samples were tested for their particle characterization, micro-fossil contents, standard sediment chemistry and biochemical conditions. Even though some effects of a marine intrusion were observed, the results are open to debate. For more meaningful regional explanations and to give way to numerical modelling which make the main tasks for tsunami hunting in the Black Sea, similar studies throughout the basin are needed.



On Lagrangian Approach to Edge Waves over a Sloping Beach

A. Giniyatullin (1) and A. Kurkin (1, 2)

(1) R. Y. Alekseev Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University,
Department of Applied Mathematics, 24 Minin Street, 603950, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Tel: +7 831 4360489 Fax: +7 831 4360489
E-mail: a.giniyatullin@groovytel.ru
(2) E-mail: aakurkin@mail.ru


In the present study developing the procedure, described by Constantine (2001), we realize the transform to Lagrangian coordinates and analytically find exact fully-nonlinear solution to the governing hydrodynamic equations of the homogeneous inviscid fluid over weak-linear sloping bottom, corresponding to the edge waves of higher modes. Actually we propose the generalization of the solution, given by Constantine, for the mode of arbitrary number. The structure of such higher-mode solution is analyzed as well as corresponding particle velocity fields, shape of water surface and coastal line. The possibilities to apply the developed theory for the tasks of modelling of surfactant dynamics and bottom sediment transport are discussed.



Internal Gravity Waves in the Ocean with Two Pycnoclines: Models and Dynamics

E. A. Vladykina(1), O.E. Polukhina(2, 3) and A.A. Kurkin (1, 3)

(1) Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Tel: +7-831-4360489 Fax: +7-831-4360489
(2) Institute of Applied Physics, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Tel: +7-831-4366086 Fax: +7-831-4366086
E-Mail: polukhin@mail.ru
(3) State University, the Higher School of Economics, 603155 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Tel: +7-831-416-96-44 Fax: +7-831-416-96-44
E-Mail: aakurkin@mail.ru


The kinematic and amplitude characteristics and shape of fully nonlinear solitary impulses of both polarities in almost three-layer ocean are investigated in this work. The existence of limiting broad solitary-like flat-top waves is proved for this medium with zero quadratic nonlinearity. The dependencies of speed, width and integrals of mass and energy from soliton amplitude are shown. Qualitatively different nonlinear wave regimes are demonstrated depending on the form of initial disturbance and on the relative layer thicknesses. Conjugate flows are considered; this phenomenon appears while limiting broad impulses are propagating. The limiting amplitude of broad solitary waves is analysed subject to layer thicknesses, point of bifurcation of wave regimes is determined. The comparison with weakly nonlinear theory is fulfilled.



Coastal Oceanography



Extreme Value Analysis of Baltic Sea Water Levels using Observed, Historical, and Modelled Data

Jürgen Jensen(1) and Christoph Mudersbach(1, 2)

(1) Research Institute for Water and Environment, University of Siegen
Tel: + 49-271-740 2172
(2) Tel: + 49-271-740 2627


In this paper some results of a collaborative research project are shown, dealing with extreme storm surges and determination of decisive design parameters at the German Baltic Sea coastline. Starting from meteorological analyses, weather situations were identified that are able to cause severe storm floods. With these data hydrodynamic models were run to calculate maximum water levels. One main objective within the analyses was to improve the estimation of occurrence probabilities of extreme events. This was done by using an integrated approach, where observed data, historical information and modelled extreme values were taken into account. The results are shown by the example of the gauge Travemünde (Southern Baltic Sea). The overall analyses show, that an improvement of understanding of extreme floods at the German Baltic Sea coastline can be achieved by looking at meteorology, oceanography, observed and historical water levels. The statistical extreme value analysis based on observed, historical andmodelled data leads to authoritative estimations of occurrence probabilities of extreme events.



Water Balance and Sea Surface Salinity

G. Surkova, V. Tuzhilkin and N.Volobueva

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography
119991, Russia, Moscow, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1
Tel: +7 495 9392942 Fax: +7 495 9328836
E-mail: galina_surkova@mail.ru


Sea surface salinity is one of the major factors of the sea hydro-physics and ecology. Regional analysis of different phases during year cycle of the surface salinity shows its non-linear connections with freshwater budget for the Black Sea. This work is devoted to combine analysis of atmospheric factors such as "precipitation minus evaporation" (P-E), large-scale atmospheric circulation and their possible influence to the sea surface salinity. Detailed estimations of P-E for different parts of the Black Sea are carried out on the basis of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Impact of climate shift of 1976-1977 to P-E, atmosphere circulation over the Black Sea and its surface salinity is revealed.



Northeast Black Sea SST and SLA Variability

N. Golenko (1), V. Melnikov (2), and L. Moskalenko (3)

P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RF Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovskiy prospect, 36, Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation
Tel: +7 499 1246383 Fax: +7 499 1246383
(1) E-mail: golenko@ioran.baltnet.ru
(2) E-mail: vmelnikov@ocean.ru
(3) E-mail: lidija-moskalenko@rambler.ru


We present an analysis of meteorological and hydrophysical variability in the vicinity of Black sea North-East coast with the use of satellite sea level anomaly (SLA), sea surface temperature (SST) databases, in-situ temperature measurements and meteorological station standard measurements.

In addition to satellite data calibration, particular goal was to examine meteorological forcing on SLA and SST fields in order to study ocean-atmosphere interactions through descriptive elements of coastal weather system.

Despite the present study revealed several typical properties of the Gelendzhik coastal "weather machine", there are essential opportunities for further combined meteorological and hydrophysical processes examination on the basis of satellite and in-situ measurements.



The Mesoscale Variability of Hydrometeorological Conditions in the Gelendzhik Bay

V.S. Arkhipkin and S.S. Mukhametov

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University,
119991 Moscow, Russian Federation
Tel: +7 495 939221 Fax: +7 495 9328836
E-mail: victor.arkhipkin@gmail.com, puffin@bk.ru


The study area is located in the west of Krasnodar region (Fig. 1). It is coastal strip which length is more than 100 km, a width - 8-15 km. This is the mountainous terrain with rounded peaks which is the western end of the Main Caucasian ridge. The prevailing height is about 400-800 meters. The mountains stretch from north-west to south-east by two nearly parallel ridges: Markotkh and Rocky. The mountain slopes are 10-15 degrees with deep gully. The narrow river valleys are deeply incised. Small rivers of the region belong to the rivers with flood regime. On the coast there are two bays: Gelendzhik and Blue. Gelendzhik Bay is formed by two capes - Thick and Thin, named so due to its configuration. The distance between the capes is approximately one nautical mile. Maximum width of the bay is 4.5 km. The greatest depth (about 17-18 meters) is confined to the throat of the bay. Depth in the central part of the bay does not exceed 12 meters. Blue Bay slightly (to ~ 1 km) juts out into the land and has a rounded shape. Greatest width of Blue Bay is about 1.1 km near the open sea. Throat of the bay is located in the southern part (Krivosheya et al., 1994). Region climate characterized by mild winters with rain and dry summers. Average air temperature in winter is: +2 - +8 °C; in summer: +20 - +24 °C, generally for the year: +12 - +14 °C. The annual rainfall varies between 600-700 mm in the north and 1500-1600 mm in the south of region. The Gelendzhik climate is greatly influenced anticyclones - Azores (summer) and Siberia (winter), as well as the Atlantic and the Mediterranean cyclones (Kosarev et al., 2008). In the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea atmospheric local circulation most developed in the summer breezes, the winds of slopes and mountain-valley circulation. Especially noticeable influence on local circulation on the weather appears while easing the baric wind and large-scale atmospheric currents. In this case, the type of weather determined by the properties of air mass, which located in the area.



Air Recirculation in Coastal Regions

G. Surkova and N. Salikhova

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography,
Department of Meteorology and Climatology
119991, Russia, Moscow, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1
Tel: +7 495 9392942 Fax: +7 495 9328836
E-mail: galina_surkova@mail.ru


Two types of recirculation annual course are revealed for northern and north-east coast of the Black Sea. Long-term changes of recirculation are investigated for the period 1960-1990. It is shown that the parameter values remained quasi-stable until mid-seventies. Since 1976-1977 steady intensification of recirculation both in winter, and summer seasons is marked.



Numerical Simulation of Meteorological Regime: the Black Sea Coast of Caucasus

P.A. Toropov (1), V.I. Bychkova (2) and A.N. Chaika (3)

(1) Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Fac. of Geography, Dept. of Meteorology and Climatology, Leninskye Gory, 1, 199991, GSP-1, Moscow, Russia.
Tel: +7-495-9392942 Fax: +7-495-932
E-mail: tormet@inbox.ru
(2) E-mail: er-riad@mail.ru
(3) E-mail: calabres@unina.it


In this paper we consider the possibility of numerical forecast of mesoscale weather phenomena for Black Sea Coast of Caucasus. Firstly, we made the numerical simulations of the phenomenon of a "northeast". Results of simulations were compared to the real data (stations measurements).



Climate Change


Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature Rise in the Period 1985-2008

Y. Samuel- Rhoads(1), G. Zodiatis(1,2), D. Hayes (1,3) and G. Georgiou (1,4)


(1) University of Cyprus, Oceanography Centre
P.O Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
Tel: +357-22-892580 Fax: +357-22-892575
E-mail: rhoads.yianna@ucy.ac.cy
E-mail: gzodiac@ucy.ac.cy
E-mail: dhayes@ucy.ac.cy
E-mail: georgios@ucy.ac.cy


Increases in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have been reported to occur globally over the past two decades. Here we analyze SST records from satellite data for the period 1985- 2008 for the entire Mediterranean Sea, and the Levantine Sub-basin. We show that the entire Mediterranean has undergone an increase in SSTs with a levelling-off observed in the second half of the record. This warming is almost double that of the global oceans. This variability is characterized by a broad, basin-wide decadal warming and a weaker dipole pattern that fluctuates at interannual time scales, as depicted by empirical orthogonal function analysis. At a basin level, SSTs in the Eastern, Western and the Levantine have also increased at interannual and seasonal scales. The driving mechanism of these changes need to be investigated, as they may be driven by changes in annual latent heat losses and by the variability in regional wind speeds. It will be valuable to investigate future trends in SSTs to determine whether the observed patterns represent a continued pattern of persistent warming or a new direction for the Mediterranean Sea.




Investigation of Mean Sea Level and Tidal Dynamics
in the Light of Climate Change

Jürgen Jensen(1), Thomas Wahl(1) and Christoph Blasi(2)

(1) Research Institute for Water and Environment, University of Siegen
Tel: + 49-271-740 2172 Fax: + 49-271-740 2722
E-mail: juergen.jensen@uni-siegen.de
(2) Federal Institute for Hydrology, Koblenz
Tel: + 49-261-1306 5246 Fax: + 49-261-1306 5280
E-mail: blasi@bafg.de


In this paper, some results of a research project (AMSeL) are presented and methods used for analysing changes in Mean Sea Level (MSL) along the German North Sea coastline over the last centuries are introduced. Especially the problems arising out of nonexistence of high resolution sea level data (at least hourly values) are discussed and a method for making data with lower resolution (e.g. high and low waters) manageable for accurate MSL estimations is presented. Uncertainties in MSL computations are described and as far as possible quantified, before an outline for further investigations concerning changes in the tidal dynamics is given. All computations are referred to the tide gauges of Heligoland and Cuxhaven. The first one provides nearly unaffected high quality sea level data due to its exposed location. The second provides the longest record available for the German North Sea area, starting in 1844.



Coastal Geomorphology and Hydrology



Coastal Geomorphology along the Southern Coast of Alkyonides Gulf (Greece)

Efthimios Karymbalis(1) and Efthimia Verikiou-Papaspiridakou(2)

(1) Department of Geography, Harokopio University, 70 El. Venizelou Str.
17671 Athens, Greece
Tel: + 30-210-9549159 Fax: + 30-210-9514759
E-mail: karymbalis@hua.gr
(2) Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, National University of
Athens, 15784 Panepistimioupolis, Athens, Greece
Tel: + 30-210-7274145
E-mail: verikiou@geol.uoa.gr


This study deals with the coastal geomorphology of the area between the bay of Agia Sotira and cape Mytikas Psathas along the southern coastline of the Alkyonides Gulf which is located in the eastern Gulf of Corinth. Recent destructive earthquakes, especially those of 1981, in the Alkyonides Gulf and associated normal faulting, show that the area is tectonically very active. A detailed coastal geomorphological mapping at the scale of 1:5000 was performed through field-work and aerial photo interpretation. Lithological types as well as coastal landforms (including marine cliffs, beachrocks, beaches consisting of various grain size sediment, coastal marshes, eroded Pleistocene alluvial fans, uplifted wave-cut and bio-erosional marine notches at the base of the coastal limestone cliffs, marine terraces e.t.c.) along the investigated coastline were depicted. For the coastal geomorphological mapping a database for the study area was constructed utilizing GIS technology. The above mentioned coastal landforms were associated with active faults that have affected the area and the seismic activity of the gulf. The configuration and evolution of the coastal zone of the study area is controlled by tectonic movements and recent sea-level changes. The normal coastal fault of Alepochori that passes through the area was activated by the 1981 earthquakes. The part of the coastline that lies on the hanging wall of the fault is characterized by the presence of subsiding coastal landforms (salt marshes, submerged wave-cut notches and beachrocks) while at the shoreline of the footwall uplifted coastal landforms are observed (uplifted marine notches and beachrocks).



Hydrogeomorphological Mapping and Recent Floods in France

Christophe Esposito(1), Sylvain Chave(2), Jean-Louis Ballais (2,3), Virginie Delorme- Laurent (2,4)


(1) Ministere Ecologie, CETE- Mediterranee, Departement REC, CS 70499, F-
13593, Aix-en Provence, cedex
Tel: + 33-442-24 79 57 Fax: +33-442-24-79 96
E-mail: christophe,esposito@developpement-durable.gouv.fr
(2) Universite de Provence, CEGA, UMR ESPACE CNRS 6012, 29 avenue
Roberst Schuman, F-13621 Aix-en- Peovence cedex 1
E-mail: sylvain.chave@free.fr
(3) E-mail: jean.louis.ballais@wanadoo.fr
(4) E-mail: nirginie,delorme_laurent@yahoo.fr


On November 12th and 13th, 1999, and September 8th and 9th 2002 two uncommon rainfall events occured in the Mediterranean part of France (400 mm and more in 24 hours). These generated extensive damage (2 billions Euros) and loss of human lives (58dead). These events offered a rare opportunity for comparing the observed flood areas with the boundaries of the floodplain. the hydrogeomorphological approach is rising up in the engineering field relative to the natural hazards forecast.

If we superimpose the boundaries, we can measure an excess lenght and a non-excess lenght. We can also proceed to a research on the origins and the process that originate an excess. Thanks to graphical numerical proceeding, the result obtained widely show the floods' extend within the floodplain of the twenty-seven rivers studied. Besides, there were no incoherent situations thanks to the principles of the hydrogeomorphological mapping. The contradictions with these principles remain very limited (about 10%) and clearily delimited. So, this study demonstrates the efficiency and the importance of using this field approach.




Atlas of Coastal Flooding Maps of the Sandy Coast (France)

Christophe Esposito

CETE Mediterranee - DREC Hydraulique
Postal Adress: Pole d'activites - CS 70499 - 13593 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 3
Tel : +33 (0) Fax : +33 (0)
Mail : christophe.esposito@developpement-durable.gouv.fr
Website : www.cete-mediterranee.fr


The Coastal Areas and Ponds Department of the Regional Direction of the Infrastructure of Languedoc Roussillon entrusted the CETE Mediterranee with the elaboration of a numerical atlas of coastal flooding maps of the sandy coast of Languedoc Roussillon. The first phase of the study consisted in a progressive methodology of flood risk mapping based on the available geomorphological, historical and topographic data. The numerical atlas makes it possible to map geomorphological formations with coastal plains in contact with alluvial plains and narrowing formations, and also historical flood events. This article concerns the four French departments of Pyrénées-Orientales, Aude, Hérault and Gard.



Development of Geo-information System for Analysis of Hydrological Regime of the Northern Caspian

Yaitskaya Nataliya(1) and Berdnikov Sergey(2)

(1) Southern Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences
344006, Russia, Rostov-on-Don,41 Chekhova St.
Tel: 863 250 98 05 Fax: 863 266 56 77
E-mail: nataliya@mmbi.krinc.ru
(2) Southern Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences
344006, Russia, Rostov-on-Don,41 Chekhova St.
Tel: 863-250-98-29 Fax: 863 266 56 77
E-mail: berdnikov@mmbi.krinc.ru


The database of primary oceanological information and cartographical database for the Caspian Sea is created. The structure of geoinformation system is constructed. Mathematical balance model is adapted for the conditions of the Caspian Sea. Hydrological regime of the Northern part of the Caspian Sea for five periods during the XX century is calculated. Changes in the structure of water body under the fluctuations of the sea level are explored. Influence of anthropogenic and climatic factors on the hydrological elements of the Caspian Sea is estimated.



Remote Sensing and GIS


The NW Mediterranean Coastal Ecological Province from Satellite and Model Data

V. Barale (1), A. Stips (1,2) and N. Hoepffner (1,3)

(1) Institute for Environment and Sustainability
Joint Research Centre, European Commission
TP 272, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (VA), Italy
Tel: +39 0332 789274 Fax: +39 0332 789034
E-mail: vittorio.barale@jrc.ec.europa.eu
(2) E-mail: adolf.stips@jrc.ec.europa.eu
(3) E-mail: nicolas.hoepffner@jrc.ec.europa.eu


An ecosystem approach to Maritime Spatial Planning is required for the safeguard of ecological services in near-coastal zones. The selection of suitable geographical units, where this approach should be taken, requires the assessment of ecological provinces, characterized by a coherent set of environmental traits. On the sea side of the coast, where the interaction between atmosphere, land and sea is not bounded by evident geographic markers, the application of remote sensing and modelling can be exploited to characterize the status and trends of marine ecosystems, starting with the recognition of near-coastal eco-regions. Climatological maps derived from satellite observations and model simulations were used to assess the space-time heterogeneity of atmospheric forcing, vertical mixing and algal blooming of the Ligurian-Provençal Sea, in the north-western Mediterranean basin, over 10 consecutive annual cycles (1997-2007). The ecosystem response to changing seasonal conditions was traced in the Gulf of Lion (40.5-42.5°N, 3.5-7.5°E), where wind forcing causes deep convective processes and consequent nutrient upwelling in the water column. The lag between forcing and blooming shows that the biological response of the ecosystem is not instantaneous, after the set up of conditions favourable to algal growth, and that it depends on the pre-conditioning fostered by a prolonged period of vertical mixing.



Monitoring and Assessment of Coastal Development along the Nile Delta Coast using Satellite Images and GIS

Mahmoud H. Ahmed (1) and Hesham M. El-Asmar (2)

(1) National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, Marine Sciences Dept. P.O. Box 1564 Alf Maskan, Cairo, Egypt
(2) Mansoura Univ., Damietta Fac. of Sci., Geo. Dept. Damietta 34517, Egypt


The world Deltaic areas are sensitive ecosystem. They subjected to both natural hazards and human interventions, among is the Nile Delta. During the last few decades, the northern part of the Nile Delta appears subjected to extensive unplanned development projects affected and accelerated negative changes over important and highly populated land in Egypt.

This study aims to determine the rate of change occurred along the coastal zone of the Nile delta from Abu Quir in the West to Damietta Governorate in the East. To assess these changes, qualitative and quantitative measurements are important to assess the present environmental status and expect the short term adverse impact on the coastal land and near shore sea water resources.

High spatial resolution Landsat and Spot imageries were used to provide information on coastal land uses changes of highly important economic value during the period 2003-2006. These types of land uses are agriculture, roads, aqua fish farms, Urban (as anthropogenic inputs) and shoreline change (as natural system) along the study area. Data from field work was conducted during the 2006 from the coastal water and land of the study area.

Results of possessing the used satellite images dated in years 2003 and 2006 demonstrates considerable growth of Urban (+36, 859, 00hc.), Roads (+1174km.) and fish farms (+27, 385, 856hc.) on the expense of the agricultural land (-43, 219, 00hc), coastal deserts along Mid-Delta coast and drying areas of Burullus and Edku lagoons.

Regarding shoreline changes the situation proved positive changes with general shoreline advance if compared with the earlier works due to successful coastal protection projects undertaken by the Egyptian Authorities. However, still different phases of erosion and accretion were recorded along the coast. Correlation of map which suggests different scenarios for the Nile Delta drowning due to sea level rise appears applicable for the area below contour line +1m a.s.l. around Burullus and Edku lagoons. These areas show present expansion of fish farms.

Various Subjects



Investigations of Long-term Effects of November 2007 Kerch Strait Black Oil Spill

N.A. Belyaev(1), G.A. Kolyuchkina(1,2), E.S. Shapovalova(1,3) and U.V. Simakova(1,4)


(1) Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Russian Academy of Sciences,
36, Nahimovski prospect, Moscow, Russia, 117997
Tel: +7(495)1291990, +7 (915) 4034787 Fax: +7 (495) 1245983
E-mail: ratnick@mail.ru
(2) E-mail: galka.sio@gmail.com
(3) E-mail: esshap@gmail.com
(4) E-mail: yankazeisig@gmail.com


P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology and WWF-Russia studied consequences of the oil spill in the Kerch strait late February - early March and late July 2008. Chemical analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbons concentration by Gas-Liquid chromatography (GC) in the water, bottom sediments, marine plants and marine animal tissues was made. Samples of macrozoobenthos, meiobenthos, microphytobenthos, macrophythobenthos and bivalves (for physiological analysis) were collected for detailed analysis of ecosystems condition.



Erosion Hazard of Coasts of the Southern Seas of Russia

S. A. Lukyanova and G. D. Solovieva


M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia
Tel: +7-495-939-22-32 Fax: +7-495-939-21-30
E-mail: Geomorpho2006@yandex.ru


The measure of wave erosion hazard of the sea coasts is defined, 4 categories of hazard on the rate of coastal processing have been proposed. The technique of drawing up of the Map of wave erosion hazard of scale 1: 500 000 is shown and on its basis the short characteristic of distribution and activity of wave erosion at the southern sea coasts of Russia is given. As the conclusion, it is said that insignificant and moderate categories of wave erosion hazard prevail in the Russian sector of the southern seas.



Experimental Research on Beach Creation along Artificial Territories

E. Volkova


"Research centre "Sea coast", Sochi, Russia
Tel/Fax: +7(8622)975317
E-mail: brovko.e@mail.ru


The considerable part of the Black Sea coast of Krasnodar region is located in a recreational zone with the unique environment. As a result of intensive development of coastal zone in Sochi, the width of beaches is considerably reduced. Systematic protection of coast practically is not conducted or its scales are extremely insufficient. Most of coast protective constructions (groins, breakwaters), are deformed and collapsed due to considerable wave impact that led to substantial decrease of attraction of sea coast.