Proceedings of the International Workshop on MED & Black Sea ICZM, November 2-5, 1996, Sarigerme, Turkey
E.Özhan (Editor)


Topics: Country reviews of coastal management, ICZM Success and Failures, Preliminary Results of An Assessment of Coastal Zone Management Initiatives in the Mediterranean

Marea Hatziolos1 and Ivica Trumbic2

1 Coastal and marine resources management specialist, The World Bank, Environment Dept., 1818 H St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433, USA, Fax: 1 202 458 5779, Tel: 1 202 477 0568
2 Assistant director, Priority Actions Programme, Regional Activity Center (PAP/RAC), Kraj s. Ivana 11, 2100 Split, Croatia, Fax: 385 21 361 677, Tel: 385 21 43499/591171


Abstract

The World Bank, in collaboration with the UNEP/MAP coordination center, is sponsoring an assessment of coastal zone management initiatives in the Mediterranean supported under MAP, METAP and other, bilateral programs over the last decade. The assessment is an attempt to evaluate the nature and effectiveness of efforts to date to introduce an integrated approach to managing the marine environment and the impacts of accelerated development and urban growth in coastal areas of the Mediterranean.

The need for coastal zone management (CZM) in the Mediterranean Basin has been an acknowledged priority in all the environmental programs launched thus far to address environmental degradation in the region. The Environmental Program for the Mediterranean (EPM), financed by the European Investment Bank, the World Bank, UNDP and the European Union, has supported the preparation of CZM studies and plans since its inception in 1990 under METAP, its technical assistance program. Under the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP), adopted with the Barcelona Convention, a series of coastal area management projects (CAMPs) have been supported since 1989 in over a dozen countries, with help from MAP's Priority Actions Program based in Split, Croatia. The evaluation will is designed to help guide the next round of investments in integrated coastal zone management proposed under METAP III and MAP II. The review will entail:

PAP/RAC has been contracted to carry out the assessment, which will be based on a review of project documents, the results of a comprehensive questionnaire sent to all CZM project managers and a detailed examination of case studies drawn from the larger pool of ICZM initiatives in the region. Case studies will include projects in the following countries: Albania, Cyprus, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey.

The assessment will be carried out in three phases:

A multi-disciplinary team of experts has been contracted to carry out the assessment. The second phase, involving field work, is scheduled to begin in early September and continue through October. Preliminary results of the assessment will be available in late October. These finding will be presented at the Med and Black Sea ICZM 96 Conference. Final results will be compiled in a report to be published by the World Bank and disseminated to stakeholders in the region. This will be facilitated by the staging of one or more regional workshops during the first quater of 1997. The report and its recommendations will be submitted for consideration to the next Conference of the Parties to the Barcelona Convention, tentatively scheduled for September 1997. It is hoped that these recommendations will be acted upon by member states and partners through the promulgation of appropriate policies and the allocation of strategic investments in support of an integrated, holistic approach to addressing national and transboundary issues in the sustainable management of the Mediterranean coastal zone



MEDCOAST: A Network Contributing to the Integrated Coastal and Sea Management in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea

Erdal Özhan

Chairman, MEDCOAST, Prof. of Coastal Engineering & Management, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey.
Tel: (90 312) 210 54 29 - 210 54 35, Fax: (90 312) 210 14 12, E-mail: medcoast@metu.edu.tr


Abstract

This paper describes the goals and achievements of the international MEDCOAST initiative for the Mediterranean and the Black Sea over the last three years. The initiative, which operates in three main directions (scientific meetings, training programs, collaborative research), was launched with the First International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment, 2-5 November 1993, Antalya, Turkey. Future development plans of MEDCOAST are briefly presented.



A Bioindex for the Quality of Mediterranean Lagoons

Paolo Breber

Dr., 1° Ricercatore, Istituto per lo Studio degli Ecosistemi Costieri, C.N.R., Via Pola 4, I - 71010 Lesina (Foggia), Italia.
Fax: +882 91352, Tel: +882 92702, E-mail: isblrp01@area.ba.cnr.it


Abstract

The scope of the paper is to suggest that the presence of a bivalve community in a lagoon may be considered an index of good environmental quality.

The lagoons of the Mediterranean which show the most desirable features, i.e. a good fishery, a rich birdlife, and a generally agreeable environment, possess an annual salinity range of 20 - 40 ‰, and are not affected by distrophic breakdowns. In this kind of lagoon the bivalves Abra ovata and Loripes lacteus are abundant and frequent. If A. ovata prevails within a particular lagoon, this indicates an annual salinity fluctuation between 14 and 27 ‰, whereas if L. lacteus is found to be more abundant then the higher range of 18 - 41 ‰ is expected. The salinity preferences of both species fall for the most part within the optimal spectrum for a good lagoon.

In summertime H2S sometimes forms in lagoons, causing the death of all organisms. Since the bivalves in question take at least two months to re-colonise, their absence is a good clue to the occurrence of this phenomenon which, normally lasting only a few days, easily escapes the notice of the itinerant researcher. The age of the oldest living individuals gives the minimum estimate on how long good environmental conditions have been lasting.

Bivalves are also the main food of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and a standing biomass of 200g (wet weight)/m2 is capable of producing 30 kg/ha/y of this fish. Thus by the quantity of bivalves it is possible to estimate the potential yield of this fish, one of the most important economic resources of a lagoon.

The temperature range, the remaining essential parameter, is independent of local ecology and falls predictably for Mediterranean lagoons between 6 and 30°C, following the season, with only slight variations due to latitude. Compared with other organisms as possible bioindicators, bivalves are easy to identify and to sample. Two lagoons in Italy are investigated and the results presented.



Phytoplankton around Cape Espichel (Portugal)

L. Cabeçadas1, M.J. Brogueira2 and G. Cabeçadas2

1 Researcher, Instituto da Conservação da Natureza, Div. Habitats e Ecossistemas, DSCN, R. Filipe Folque, nº 46 5º, 1050 Lisboa, Portugal, Fax: +0001 3574771, Tel: +0001 3523018
2 Researcher, Instituto de Investigação das Pescas e do Mar, Dep. de Ambiente Marinho, Av. Brasília, 1400 Lisboa, Portugal, Fax: +00 01 3015948, Tel: +00 01 3010814


Abstract

Phytoplankton spatial variability around Cape Espichel (Portugal) was studied in March 1994.

The specific abiotic conditions of the coastal waters in this area favour the growth of a phytoplankton population which is characterized by the dominance of diatoms during the spring. In the waters adjacent to the Cape there is a high proportion of the microplankton fraction (>20 µm), with the species Schroederella schroederi dominating.

The highly patchy distribution of phytoplankton (horizontal and vertical), expressed as chlorophyll-a, and the structure of the communities at surface, were related to the environmental conditions, specifically hydrographic, chemical and to some geographic features of the area, namely the marine Lisbon canyon.

Some measures are suggested concerning the integrated coastal management of the mentioned coastal zone, specially in order to prevent the eutrophication process and towards the planning and implementation of a Marine Reserve in the area owing to its rich and diverse marine biological resources namely, macroalgae, fishes, marine mammals and sea birds.



Evaluation of the Black Sea Land-Based Sources Inventory Results of the Coastal Region of Turkey

G.Bakan1, H.Böke Özkoç1, H.Büyükgüngör2, O.N.Ergun2,N.Onar3

1Ass.Prof.Dr., Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 55139, Kurupelit/Samsun, Turkey
2Prof.Dr., Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Environmental Engineering , 55139, Kurupelit/Samsun, Turkey
3Prof.Dr., Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Chemistry, 55139, Kurupelit, Samsun, Turkey. Fax: 90 362 4576035, Tel: 90 362 4576000/2834


Abstract

The Black Sea is widely perceived to be heavily polluted as it was stated in GEF Black Sea Environmental Programme, Summary Report (1994). But without data on pollution, its management would be needless effort. So, beginning from its inventory studies and then monitoring of the system together with the common border of responsibility countries of the Black Sea basin, it is possible to formulate the priorities for management actions of the basin.

The compilation of all available information in a set of questionnaires and to make possible the establishment of a source-receptor relation between the source and the established levels of pollutants is the first part of this research. Then, the results of the land-based sources inventory of Turkey coast of Black Sea are evaluated according to the methodology described in ''Assessment of Sources of Air, Water and Land Pollution Part One-Rapid inventory Techniques In Environmental Pollution'' (WHO, 1993).

By using the load factors for each parameter, BOD5, COD, SS, Total N and Total P, domestic waste loads of each city and its towns are calculated as ton/year. If there is an any domestic wastewater treatment plant present in the city or town, Then the necessary reduction in the waste loads are calculated by using the factors given in WHO, 1993.

According to the evaluation of the inventories, it is corrected that the cities Samsun, Trabzon and Zonguldak carry out the heavy domestic loads to Black Sea as it was expected from the topography and the population distribution of the Black Sea region.

For the evaluation of the industry inventories, the liquid waste load and control model (WHO, 1993) provides six columns listing the conventional pollutants BOD5, COD, SS, Total N and Total P and a last column reserved for toxic and other important substances, as the case may be for each sources considered. For each industry, working table is filled with related calculations and then the industrial waste load totals of each city present in the Black Sea coast of Turkey are listed.

So it is concluded that the main industries along the Black Sea coast from the point of view of pollution characteristics and economic value are the Samsun Fertilizer Plant, Ereğli Iron and Steel Works, Karadeniz Primary Copper Production Plant, Murgul Copper Mine and Zonguldak Coal Mine.

As a result, 32 sampling stations for the Routine Pollution Monitoring Study are selected according to the informations collected and calculated from land-based sources inventories.



Land-based pollution in the Mediterranean Sea Area

Valentín Bou Franch

Lecturer on Public International Law. Institute of International Law, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Fax: +34 6 3864443, Tel: +34 6 3864453, E-Mail: Valentin.Bou@uv.es


Abstract

This paper deals with the political and legal regional approach adopted by the Mediterranean coastal States in order to prevent, abate, combat and eliminate to the fullest possible extent pollution of the Mediterranean Sea Area caused by discharges from rivers, coastal establishments or outfalls, or emanating from any other land-based sources and activities within their territories. Special attention is paid to the 1996 amendments to the Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution from Land-Based Sources (Athens, 17 May 1980).



Post-Industrial Tourist Behavior and Its Reflections on Mediterranean Destinations

Ö. Ünal

MSc. Research Assist., Dokuz Eylül University., Dept. of Urban and Regional Planning, Izmir, Turkey. Fax: +90 232 421 52 19, Tel: +90 232 421 86 43


Abstract

This paper attempts to present the relation between the late twentieth century tourist behavior and its reflections on the Mediterranean while giving the main emphasis to the consumption of local assets of destinations. This position reflects itself well on the widespread construction of tourist attractions and facilities along the Mediterranean. It also reflects itself with the ever-increasing concentrations of people into particular locations, changing pattern of tourist complexes, restaurants, bars, etc. providing for a high-level of consumer tastes. It also reflects itself in the consumption of goods and services as well as on natural and cultural values. Changing pattern of tourist behavior and its impacts are more clear today than any period of the past. It will perhaps be more serious in the near future. This paper presents how these destinations are considered by tourists, how they are appreciated, exploited and degraded despite the new attitudes towards more ecologically and culturally sound tourism development policies. It is believed that the solution lies not only in taking sound planning and management measures, but also in the analysis of tourist behavior itself. This behavior needs to be understood and integrated into our planning and management systems.



Institutional Frameworks in Coastal Management

Jane Taussik

Principal Lecturer, University of Portsmouth, Centre for Coastal Zone Management, Portland Building, Portland Street, Portsmouth PO1 3AH, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1705 876543, Fax: +44 (0)1705 842913, E-Mail: taussikj@lcm1.envf.port.ac.uk.


Abstract

Few nations have statutory frameworks for integrated coastal zone management but most developed countries have town and country planning systems concerned with the allocation of land and property. Such systems, given an appropriate institutional framework, can make a major contribution to the resolution of conflict in the use of coastal resources.

In England/Wales, the planning system is well established. However, its value in coastal zone management is limited by both its legal and operational framework and by planners' perceptions of 'the coast'.

These legal and operational limitations do not apply to the Swedish planning system so that the contribution of planning to coastal management appears to be more readily secured. That it is not, suggests that other factors are at play. These are considered to be greater environmental awareness and the political will to achieve environmental objectives.

Broader environmental understanding is needed, particularly for the coastal environment. Networking is important in facilitating this. Experience in England/Wales is considerably more established than in Sweden. However, more formal environmental education for current and future professionals and decisions makers needs to be available.

Only when awareness is raised, appropriate institutional frameworks provided and political will established will objectives concerned with the long term, sustainable use of coastal resources be realisable.



Pilot Studies of Mediterranean Beach User Perceptions

R. Morgan1, E. Gatell2, R. Junyent2, A. Micallef3, E. Özhan4 and A.T. Williams1

1 Centre for Environmental Science and Technology, School of Applied Sciences, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, CF37 1DL, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 1443 480480, Fax: +44 (0) 1443 482285
2 Laboratori d'Estudis Socials de i'Enginyeria Civil, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. Tel: +34 (9) 3 401 71 05, Fax: +34 (9) 3 401 65 04
3 Euro-Mediterranean Center on Insular Coastal Dynamics, Foundation for International Studies, University of Malta, St. Paul Street, Valetta VLT 07, Malta. Telephone: +356 234121. Fax: +356 230551
4 Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey. Tel / Fax: +90 312 210 1412


Abstract

Beach user preferences and priorities for 50 beach aspects were analysed via a questionnaire and compared at 3 Mediterranean coastal areas; the Turkish Aegean coast (n = 245), the Costa Dorada, Spain (n = 157) and Malta (n = 154). Similarities in user preferences were often linked to study location rather than country of origin, indicating a significant effect of immediate environment on beach user attitudes. Changes to beach profile and morphology at the nourished beaches in Spain were reflected by changes in user preferences for associated aspects and suggested beach users saw these changes as undesirable. North European visitors preferred higher bathing water temperatures and wider beaches than native Mediterranean beach users, also preferring vehicle traffic kept away from beach areas. Unsurprisingly, north European visitors placed high priority on long sunshine hours, but there were also many common concerns given high priority by all sub-groups. These included bathing water cleanliness, absence of sewage debris, litter and oil, air quality and cleanliness of toilets.

Integrated Coastal Zone Management should recognise that as far as management interaction with the public is concerned, material factors of the coastal environment such as facilities, morphology and pollution are intimately linked to people's perception of these same factors. This perception in turn is influenced by familiarity, expectation, culture and past experiences which can complicate both management itself and also interpretation of perception survey data. While perception studies have the potential to make vital contributions to management, care and caution are needed in their use and interpretation if they are to fully realise their considerable management and planning guidance potential.



Socio-Economic Aspects of Beach Management - A pilot study of the Maltese Islands

Anton Micallef

Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Insular Coastal Dynamics, EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement', Foundation for International Studies, University of Malta, Tel: +356 240746, Fax: +356 245764, Email: icod@maltanet.omnes.net


Abstract

Beach management is presented as a field of study which has as yet to provide clear operational guidelines for managers and policy makers. An attempt is made to better define this process and the role it has to play within any effective integrated coastal area management plan. Beach management guidelines are presented over a general description of limited but socio-economically very valuable beach resources on the Maltese islands. A brief description is also given of a pilot study which attempts to evaluate the economical importance of beaches to the islands' economy.



Geographic Information System (GIS): Contribution to the management and protection of the marine environment

Vanina Pasqualini1, Stéphan Acquatella2, Maddy Cancemi-Soullard3 & Christine Pergent-Martini1

1 Université de Corse, Equipe Ecosystèmes Littoraux, B.P.52, 20250 Corte, France. Tel: (33) 95 45 00 74, Fax: (33) 95 46 24 41, E-mail:eqel@univ-corse.fr
2 Office de l'Environnement de la Corse-Observatoire de l'Environnement de la Corse-, 26 Cours Paoli, 20250 Corte, France. Tel:(33) 95 61 08 19 3 Office de l'Environnement de la Corse-Projet de Parc Marin International des Bouches de Bonifacio-, 17 Bd du Roi Jérome 20000 Ajaccio, France. Tel: (33) 95 21 85 19


Abstract

The plan to set up an International Marine Park in the Bonifacio strait (Corsica - Sardinia) has offered an opportunity for setting up a georeferenced data bank applicable to the marine environment. Geographic Information System are today indispensable tools for environmental management and protection. In this area, which has been little studied, it has been necessary to develop a rapid and efficient method to set up a data bank that can be easily consulted and extended. Along the 150 km of coastline, the main biocenoses and bottom types have been mapped, down to depths of about 20 m, by computer image processing of aerial photographs. The raster images are transformed into vector images by an automatic processing system that allows direct input of the georeferenced data bank. Other sources of information (bathymetry; bibliographical data) are taken into account as a basis for producing a map of potential localization of these biocenoses, in the absence of investigations below the 20 m isobath. These results are indispensable for an efficient management and an optimal protection of this sector.



The Interest of Benthic Cartography and GIS in Coastal Management: The Corsican example

G. Pergent and C. Pergent-Martini

Eq.E.L., University of Corsica, Faculty of Sciences, BP 52, 20250 Corte, France. Tel : (33) 04 95 45 00 55; Fax : (33) 04 95 46 24 41; E-Mail:pergent@univ-corse.fr


Abstract

The development of benthic cartography is a priority for many Mediterranean islands, expecially in areas exposed to strong tourism pressure, where it is important that the requirements of coastal development projects should not be allowed to damage the quality of the environment. While each of the various cartographical techniques now available has its advantages and disadvantages, there can be no doubt that they are all increasingly effective. Depending on the degree of accuracy required, on the one hand, and on the surface area to be charted on the other, the cartographical techniques can be grouped into three main categories : (i) small-scale, (ii) large-scale and (iii) micro-cartography. The decision-makers now have at their disposal a wide range of instruments that are well-suited to the requirements of the management of the coastal environment. However, the choice of one or other of the methods presented must be based not only on its suitability for achieving the objectives, but also on a good balance between the cost of the operation and the degree of accuracy required. This balance is indispensable if reliable results are to be obtained. Nevertheless, in addition to biocenotic cartography, there is also a need for a wide range of data in easily accessible form (water movement, bathymetry, sedimentology, coastal development, etc). A major effort is required to develop the Geographical Information System (GIS), which is a powerful tool for efficient coastal management in the Mediterranean.



Integrated marine and coastal GIS for the Sicilian region

Vittorio Barale

Space Applications Institute, Marine Environment Unit, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, 21020 Ispra (VA), Italy Tel: +39 332 789274, Fax: +39 332 789034, E-mail:vittorio.barale@jrc.it


Abstract

An experimental GIS was developed for the Island of Sicily, with the aim of assessing some distinctive traits of both the marine and terrestrial environment in the coastal zone. The GIS integrates data generated by remote sensors as well as conventional cartographic data. Parameters describing the marine environment, at the regional scale, were derived from time series of composite chlorophyll-like pigment concentration images generated by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) in the period 1979-1985, and of composite sea surface temperature images generated by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in the period 1982-1985. Other auxiliary data, such as bathymetry and maps of hydrological basins, rivers, elevation, and reservoirs were selected to complement the low-resolution satellite data set and introduced in the regional GIS. At the local scale (Simeto river basin and Gulf of Catania), parameters describing essential coastal water constituents and vegetation were derived from TM data (1985 and 1994). The ancillary data set integrated with the high-resolution images includes information about physical and biological components of the local coastal environment (i.e. geographic, geological, geomorphologic, sedimentary and vegetation outlines). Examples of the synergistic use of such data, at various space/time scales, include assessing the impact of runoff from hydrological basins on the marine ecosystem, correlating runoff and optical indeces of sediment transport, coastal evolution and vegetation cover.



Aerial Digital Photography: A Management Tool For Sand Dunes

E. Edwards1, A. Koh2, R. H. F. Curr3 and A. T. Williams4

1 Ph.D. Research assistant, Chemical and Environmental Division, School of Applied Sciences, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, CF37 1DL, United Kingdom. Fax:+44 1225874082, Tel:+44 1225873701
2 Senior Lecturer, RSGIS Unit, Faculty of Applied Science, Bath College of Higher Education, Newton Park, Bath, BA2 9BN, United Kingdom. Fax: 44 1225 874082, Tel: +44 1225873701, E-mail:akoh@bathhe.ac.uk
3 Dr. Faculty of Applied Science, Bath College of Higher Education, Newton Park, Bath, BA2 9BN, United Kingdom. Fax: 44 1225 874082, Tel +44 1225873701, E-mail: rcurr@bathhe.ac.uk
4 Prof. Dr., Chemical and Environmental Division, School of Applied Sciences, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, CF37 1DL United Kingdom. Fax: 44 1443 482285, Tel: 44 1443 48280


Abstract

The coastal zone is becoming increasingly densely populated on a global scale and this increasing population pressure at the coast inevitably exerts an enormous impact on the limited natural resources there. It is now internationally recognised that we are in need of urgent management to achieve sustainability at the coast (Sorensen, 1991). Effective management depends on the availability of quality information which is objectively measured, rather than anecdotal, and presented in a form which is readily accessible and comprehensible to decision makers (Ricketts, 1992).

One particular area of interest at the coast is the management of sand dune systems and Williams et. al., (1993) have devised a Coastal Sand Dune Vulnerability Checklist suitable for the management of European Atlantic dune systems. Pilot studies have revealed that a high level of consistency results, even when used by managers from a variety of disciplines, and trialing the checklist in the Mediterranean suggests that with relatively minor modification it would be applicable beyond the Western Littoral of Europe. Whilst the structured procedure dictated in the operation of the checklist offers the advantage of economy in both time and effort over less organised methods, field monitoring of such dynamic coastal environments is still time consuming and tedious because of the large spatial scales involved.

There is a need to devise new methods for monitoring physical and ecological parameters which would provide rapid, inexpensive, reliable data. Remote sensing techniques are capable of providing data which can be interrogated to provide such information. Airborne digital photography is a new technology which integrates seamlessly with other digital technologies such as Global Positioning Systems [GPS] and Geographic Information Systems [GIS], and may ultimately supplant the use of traditional aerial photographs and provide the final link in the transition to an all digital environment. The explosive growth in the GPS, GIS and digital imaging market over the last two years has brought down the cost of these technologies so dramatically that they may now be included in the suite of tools available for the management of the coastal zone.

Colour infrared, aerial digital imagery of coastal sand dune sites on the Atlantic coast of Brittany, France, was acquired in June 1996 using an Aerial Digital Photographic System (ADPS). The imagery was evaluated for its potential to provide a rapid and cost effective source of data to address each of the elements set out in the checklist, without the need to deploy personnel on the ground. A range of characteristic features indicative of dune erosion and dune accretion have been identified and preliminary results have shown that a large proportion (68%) of the checklist elements which refer to physical parameters are assessable using these techniques, opening the way to large scale, periodic, rapid surveillance of coastal sand dunes, reducing the subjective elements of the checklist approach and providing early warning of dune vulnerability to managers.



Differential Global Positioning Systems for Coastal Zone Management

A. Koh1 and E. Edwards2

1 Senior Lecturer, Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Unit, BCHE, Newton Park, Bath BA2 9BN, United Kingdom. Fax: +44 1225874082, Tel: +44 468232191, E-mail:akoh@bathhe.ac.uk
2 Ph.D. Research Assistant, Centre for Environmental Science and Technology, School of Applied Sciences, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom. Fax: +44 1225874082, Tel: +44 1225873701, E-mail:eedwards@bathhe.ac.uk


Abstract

Coastal zone managers - national, regional or global - need access to reliable and up to date resource information in order to be able to establish a baseline data set prior to the analysis of physical and anthropogenic processes which affect the coastal zone. The data from which this information is derived must be easily acquired, be accessible to the community and coastal zone managers, and must be available in a format which is universally acceptable to the end users. The majority of information for resource management is derived from spatial data, and for decision makers to be able to integrate information from different disciplines and sources they must utilise a common geographic referencing system or address, in order to be able to develop relevant indicators on the state of the coastal zone.

Complete data sets suitable for establishing base lines are often unavailable, are of incompatible formats, have large redundancies, or incur substantial commercial costs or unacceptable terms and conditions. In the context of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, the technique of differential global positioning will significantly enhance the capability of end users to collect time, space and attribute data for decision support applications. This paper will address the concept and principles of the differential Global Positioning System, explore the availability of the differential Global Positioning System service within European, and demonstrate how attribute data from different sources and disciplines may be integrated into the spatial data set, in order to provide data and information for Geographic Information Systems. Such systems will facilitate the decision making capability of coastal zone managers and enable the dissemination of information across regional and national coastal zone boundaries.



Modelling Land-use and Land-cover Changes in Deltaic Areas

Michele Capobianco1 and Henriëtte S. Otter2

1 Senior System Engineer, Tecnomare S.p.A., R&D, Environment, San Marco n. 3584, 30124 Venezia, Italy. Tel: +39 41 796711, Fax: +39 41 796800, E-mail: michele@tecnomare.nettuno.it
2 Associate Researcher, University of Twente, Department of Civil Engineering and Management, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 53 489 2821, Fax: +31 53 489 2511


Abstract

We discuss the problem of integration of natural dynamics of different deltaic areas when affected and/or dominated by human induced mechanisms of influence. The objective is the understanding of the mechanisms of change of land use and cover, whereby "land" has an extensive meaning in a situation were most of the environment is in fact "wetland". We base our discussion on work originated in the Mediterranean deltas, highly affected by anthropogenic activities. We highlight the fact that for such complex systems like deltaic systems, modelling is first of all a problem of organisation of information rather than "simply" a problem of definition of the dynamics in strict sense. A major challenge is managing vast amounts of (spatial) data, of process knowledge (at various scales) and models (at various levels of detail) to reveal new and complex phenomena and to understand mechanisms of evolution that cannot otherwise be identified and handled. The climatic change related phenomena represent a kind of background process for this problem.

After the introduction, where we recall the need for specific decision support tools for deltaic systems, we introduce some guidelines for the modelling of land use and cover dynamics. We then describe the approach of GIS-oriented representation with the idea of physiographic units. The terminology for the conceptual modelling of structural relationships and functional aspects is introduced, together with the definition of "links". The value of the physiographic unit approach for the description of the connection with the socio-economic system is also discussed. A brief example of connection between physical, ecological and economic systems is presented by using the example of a "synthetic delta".



EU ICZM in the Mediterranean: Progress and Prospects

Stefano Belfiore

Secretary-General, International Centre for Coastal and Ocean Policy Studies (ICCOPS), c/o The University of Genoa, Department Polis, Stradone di S.Agostino 37, 16123 Genoa, Italy. Fax:+39 10 2095907, Tel:+39 10 2095840, E-mail:iccops@polis.unige.it


Abstract

A role for the European Union in the management of Mediterranean coastal zones is justified by problems on the regional scale and the impact on the basin of policies and actions from the Union. The low consistency between the sectoral policies of the Union requires coordination mechanisms and concertation between all the levels of responsibility concerned with coastal issues. Lack of cooperation and conflicts between coastal stakeholders often result in failures in the enforcement of the legal instruments. Concerning regional cooperation, the implementation of the Euro-Mediterranean strategy planned by the 1990 Nicosia Charter calls for a closer coordination with MAP. The European Commission has launched in 1995 a three-year demonstration programme on the integrated management of coastal zones. Through a series of pilot projects, it will assess the effectiveness of existing policies and measures with the objective to enhance environment and territorial planning at European and regional level.



Integrated Coastal Zone Management at the Local Level: A Methodology based on Information and Consent

Gheskou Ifighenia

Ph.D. University of Thessaly, Department of Planning and Regional Development, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos, Greece, Tel: +30421 69781, Fax: +30421 63793


Abstract

This paper investigates the expediency of, as well as the conditions for, integrating the environmental dimension into the management of the coastal zone at the local administration level (i.e. Prefecture). The methodology proposed is based on two main axes by: a) organizing the existing scattered information and create, through horizontal collaborations, a permanent and unified Data Base, b) involving the agents, influencing the formation of the coastal space, in procedures of mutual communication and negotiation so that to ensure their alignment with the logic of sustainable development.



A Note on the Role of Economics in Integrated Coastal Zone Management

Julian S Galloway

Group Project Manager, Hyder Consulting, Environmental Group, Llantarnam Park, Cwmbran, Newport, Gwent, UK NP44 3AB. Tel: 01633 876511, Fax: 01633 870899


Abstract

In the last decade there has been considerable emphasis on the recognition of the competing use requirements in the coastal zone, and the need for integrated management of those uses. Much of this activity has focused on identification and characterisation of the nature and issues associated with uses, stakeholder participation in management planning, and options/recommendations for regulatory policy and legislation design implementation.

Whilst some countries have successfully developed the legislative and policy framework for ICZM, many countries have not yet developed mechanisms that translate academic and stakeholder strategies into practical policies and regulations at Government level. This paper offers a brief discussion of how clear and effective incorporation of economic considerations in ICZM may arguably provide a mechanism by which Governments and policy makers will quickly set in motion proposals and frameworks for urgently needed action.

The rationale and conclusions of the discussion centre on the need for primary socio-economic prioritisation in ICZM, with an emphasis on the inclusion of effective environmental economic evaluation in decision making and strategic management planning.



ISRAEL - Country Review of Coastal Management

S. Pisanty

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture. P. O. Box 1213, K. Haiim, Israel 26106. Tel: 972 4 8418853, Fax : 972 4 8418854.


Abstract

At present there is no ICZM for Israel. There is a partial National Master Plan for Coastal Areas which focuses mainly on the uses of the land side of the shore and a few hundred meters seaward . As far as Israel's national waters are concerned, the present jurisdiction enables different ministries acting under the respective laws to take independent action and provide or deny permits on maters under their jurisdiction.

There are indications of increasing friction between the different users of the marine area. Fishermen, being the traditional users of the sea but a weak pressure group, are most liable to loose under the present conditions. Another sensitive group are marine fish farmers whose farms are susceptible to marine pollution. For this reason the Fisheries Department has taken steps to initiate the preparation of a National Master Plan for Territorial Waters.

The Territorial Waters Committee is entitled under the Planning and Building Law to prepare such a plan. Under this law, authority can be delegated to zonal planning committees which would manage the various user designated areas under this plan.



ICZM: An Egyptian Experience

M.A. Fawzi1, A.G. Abul-Azm2, M.Kh. El-Sayed3

1Head, Environmental Management Sector, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, Cairo, Egypt
2Ass. Prof., Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
3Prof., Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt


Abstract

Since 1994, Coastal Zone Management in Egypt had started to take a formal dimension. Several steps had been taken in the past two years. On the international level, the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), on behalf of the Government of Egypt (GOE), had started cooperation with donors mainly from Denmark and the Netherlands, and the national level, several actions had been taken. These actions are varying from setting guidelines, implementation and enforcement of the law, and most importantly, takes charge of forming the National Committee for Integrated Coastal Zone Management. The present paper exhibits the Egyptian experience in the last two years, what had been achieved and what is yet to come.



Economic development and coastal environment in Sicily (Italy) in an Integrated Coastal Management policy*

G. Randazzo1 and L. Scrofani2

1Università di Messina, Istituto di Scienze della Terra, Sant'Agata di Messina, Italy. Fax: +39 90 392333, Tel: +39 90 6765095, E-Mail: randazzo@labcart.unime.it
2Università di Catania, Istituto di Geografia Economica, Catania, Italy. Fax: +39.95.370574, Tel.: +39.95.375344


Abstract

This paper underlines at the same time the multiple potentialities and the innumerable risks of pollution of the Sicilian coastline. From the beginning of its history, Sicily has occupied a central position in the Mediterranean and as such has offered endless resources. The exploitation of these has varied over the centuries, from early trade, agricultural and fishing activities to the more recent greenhouse cultivation, the great petrol-chemical industries and the phenomenon of tourism and the holiday home. These recent activities are greatly endangered the Sicilian coast, threatened by both erosion and pollution; nevertheless it would be a mistake to prohibit all forms of economic and industrial activity. What is needed is a plan which permits the greatest possible development of the Sicilian coast, in order to exploit all its possibilities stimulating economic growth and employment, while safeguarding the ecosystem from forms of environmental degradation which could cause permanent and irreversible damage.



A Pilot Project on Mersin Coastal Zone For Integrated Planning

A. Nuray

Chemist, The Ministry of Environment. General Directorate of EIA and Planning, Eskisehir Yolu 8.Km., 06530, Ankara, TURKEY. Fax: 90 312 286 22 71, Tel: 90 312 287 99 63/2201


Abstract

In the coastal zone, pollution and destruction on coastal resources are important problems of Turkey. These problems have been intensively feeling specially on Mersin Coastal Zone. Mersin is under the high pressure of industrialisation, transportation and tourism as well as secondary houses demand which threatens agricultural areas and natural resources.

In the framework of the Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution (Barcelona, 5-8 June l995) and the Mediterranean Action Plan, a project on Mersin Coastal Areas for Integrated Planning was initiated by the Ministry of Environment in l995 and expected to be finalised at the end of 1996.

It's seems to be need that doing Integrated Coastal Management Planning for this area. Environmental resources are under the threaten by tourism, industry and transportation developments because of the directly or indirectly effects of South Anatolian Project, present high sectoral development potential, high demand to secondary houses.



Reviews of Legal And Institutional Systems
New Regulations and Institutions for Environmental Protection in Romania

Julian POSTOLACHE and Cristina NENCIU

Romanian Marine Research Institute, Constanta, Romania. E-mail: jullyp@alpha.rmri.ro; fax: 40-41-831274


Abstract

In this paper institutions and regulations which have been established by new democratic system for addressing various environmental issues, are discussed. Wherever appropriate, deficiencies and shortcomings are briefly pointed out.



Coastal processes and issues, specific in Romania

Cristina NENCIU and Claudia COMAN

Romanian Marine Research Institute, Constanta, Romania, Tel: (40)41 650870, Fax: (40)41 831274, E-mail: jullyp@alpha.rmri.ro


Abstract

The Romanian Black Sea coastline extending over about 244 km is affected by erosion, especially in the last three decades. The man's impact is main cause of erosion intensification and extension. The reason of this affirmation is because the natural factors did not change too more. The consequences of the man's impact consist of a number of issues which are the subject of the final part of this paper. Data included in this paper are collected for the 1978-1995 time.



ICZM in Georgia -- from regional to local

M. Gvilava1, Chomakhidze2

1 ICZM Environmental Program Manager, Ministry of Environment of Georgia, 68a Kostava St., Tbilisi 380015, Georgia, Fax: +995 (32) 983425, Tel: +995 (32) 391812, E-mail:irisi@gmep.kheta.ge
2 Assistant Program Manager, Ministry of Environment of Georgia, 68a Kostava St., Tbilisi 380015, Georgia, Fax: +995 (32) 983425, Tel: +995 (32) 391812, E-mail: irisi@gmep.kheta.ge


Abstract

Current ICZM initiatives for the Black Sea coast of Georgia are discussed in the paper. The brief description of the regional Black Sea Environmental Program ICZM activities in Georgia is followed by more detailed presentation of the components of the national Integrated Coastal Zone Management program, funded by the World Bank/GEF. NGO environmental public awareness and involvement activities proved to become the most dynamic and effective part of the program implementation. At the same time, the initial top to bottom approach directed towards the institutionalization of the ICZM into the government structure has experienced certain difficulties. The attempts are under way to address the integrated decision-making issues at the coastal municipality level through the local ICZM approach for the management of Lake Paliastomi. Crucial link to the national level ICZM is to be maintained through the introduction of basin-wide integrated environmental management principles, applied to the river Rioni. These initiatives could potentially spread to other coastal regions of the country in case the effective community involvement/participation is achieved.



Coastal Evolution Modeling due to Relative Sea Level Rise

Philippe Fraunie, Jean-Luc Devenon, Vincent Rey

Laboratoire de Sondages Electromagnetiques et de l'Environnement Terrestre, URA 705 au CNRS, Universite de Toulon et du Var, BP 132, 83957 La Garde CEDEX, Erance, Tel: 33 494 14 20 86, Fax: 33 4 94 14 24 48, E-mail: fraunie, rey, devenon@lseet,univ-tln.fr


Abstract

The aim of the present study is to model the long time evolution of the shoreline including sea level rise effects by introducing longshore advection and diffusion mechanisms owing to local transport equations. A new model is presented and an identification technique is proposed to recover the advection and diffusion terms of the mass conservation equation for the sediments residual transportation.



The long way to coastal zone management of the Med shores of Israel

Ir. Robert Meents

Principal consultant of toral Consulting Engineers, 17 Levi Eshkol St. Petah Tikva 49217 lsrael, Tel:972 3 9218470, Fax: 972 3 934373S


Abstract

The land of Israel was the first country in the Mediterranean where beaches were destroyed by a men-made coastal structure.

It happened less than 2000 years ago at Sebastos, Herod the Great's unconventional port of Caesarea, a veritable megalopolis in antiquity. The huge breakwater of this port protruded half a kilometer into the Med but it lasted only 50 to 70 years, before it was destroyed, probably by a series of heavy storms with or without simultaneous earthquakes. North of the port sandy beaches were eroded, over more than 100 m. width and 5 km. length, up to the headland of Gesar-a-Zarka on the Crocodile river. An additional local erosion of half a kilometer of length north of the lee breakwater destroyed the big Roman aqueduct and made water supply to Caesaria city problematic.

It was never repaired, the eroded bay is still existing; this manmade erosion was not mitigated by nature even after its cause, the breakwater, collapsed and disappeared on the seabottom. The same kind of erosion occurred since the early 1960s on the shore of the Yavneh dunes. Neither the planners of the breakwater of Israel's biggest port at Ashdod nor Israel's regulating governmental committees prevented the destruction of almost 10 kms of wide bathing beaches to the north of it, and the widening of the beach to the south of the port.

A year ago Israel's Environmental Minister Yossi Sarid was approached and confronted with these major cases of coastal erosion as with other problematic cases like the existing marinas of Herzliyah and Ashkelon, the Ashdod marina under construction, and the marina at the mouth of the Yarkon River in Tel-Aviv, for which developers started planning. The Minister's reaction was reluctant. Until today the Israeli Environment Ministry did not issue its policy on the matter. The inevitable conclusion: the discipline of Coastal Morphodynamics (CMD) has not yet achieved in Israel the state of art and high status which the profession enjoys throughout the western world. Neither should the existence of neatly formulated declarations of regional co-operation - like the Barcelona Convention and the Tarragona Conference - distract attention from what is going on in reality: an ongoing, irresponsible pressure on Israel's sensitive coasts, under the slogan cf "sustainable development" combined with "economic (or national) interests."

It seems in Israel that little thought is given to the long-term national interest of the touristic assets and resources embodied in those shores, and no investment is made in conservation or its professional planning.

The existing National Masterplan for the Coasts, the so-called TAMA 13, is without any clout against the destruction of the shores. It is the author's impression - after 35 years of consulting practice in Israel and abroad - that what is lacking in Israel is e6'ective legislation.

There exist many professional ways to recover for instance the 2600 m. long beach between Marina Herzeliya and Apollonia, but the four ways the municipality of Herzeliya is suggesting are in no way among them.

The municipality's optimal solution saves about 600 m. of beach and cliff behind two pairs of detached breakwaters, but leaves the rest, i.e. 2000 m. to total destruction in about 6ve to ten years, exposing unfriendly beachrock.

The press release of the municipality is accusing Technion engineers of the coastal catastrophe of its beach, because of their failure to predict the real world erosion with the aid of their (faulty) morpho- dynamics model. Another scapegoat is found in geological mythology: it is the Aswan dam that is to blame for the gradual destruction of all the beaches of the 'Nilotic littoral cell" up to Haifa. By the aid of the local press the municipality is in fact brainwashing its own public in a quite sophisticated way.

It is almost succeeding in shifting the attention of the public away from the real culprits and perpetrators of this "crime against nature". While boasting that it invests considerable public funds (up until now NIS 950,000 for design only) to mitigate the disaster, the municipality fails to mention that the real cause of the destruction of its beaches is the huge main breakwater of its famous marina. The responsible for the disaster is the investor-developer that won the AP tender in 1988 and assigned a consulting engineer for the construction of the "skeleton" of the marina.

Every responsible and reliable licensed engineer has to be heavily insured against faulty design, especially in the branch of coastal engineering. In case of a failure, it is not the public that should pay the price but the insurance companies. The recent case of Marina Herzeliya is only the beginning of what will happen to the beaches of all marinas that are already constructed (Ashkelon) or under construction (Ashdod) and are being planned according to the national master plan of the coasts (TAMA 13) as the Yarkon river mouth marina at Tel Aviv. The mayor of Ashdod has promised the Coastal Water Committee (CWC) to repay whatever damages that will occur by the construction of his Ashdod marina. Several senior civil servants of the CWC enhance and promote this trend to shift the liability of the consulting engineer upon the public.

Like the case of the Med coast of Spain, the trend is set that the Israeli public will have to recover its coastal resources by spending hundreds of millions of dollars from public funds.

In order to save what is left of the Israeli coasts, it is of the highest priority that an obligatory norm be formulated for the design and construction of coastal structures for consulting engineers. This norm should not only include detailed design criteria and the use of sophisticated mathematical models but also penalties in case of faulty design in the form of liability suits.

It should especially become mandatory to invest properly, during all planning phases, in various mathematical models, for each coastal project. The new National Masterplan 138 should incorporate this building norm and not rely on Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring only.



The Intersection Between River Basin and Coastal Zone Management: The Case of Altinova

S. Kapdasli1, E. Irtem2, T. Mutlu3 and E. Ünal4

1 Prof.Dr., Istanbul Technical University, Civ. Eng. Dept., Istanbul, Turkey*, Fax No: +90 212 2856587, Tel No: +90 212 2853410, E-Mail:kapdasli@sariyer.cc.itu.edu.tr
2 Ast. Prof.Dr., Balıkesir University, Civ. Eng. Dept., Balikesir, Turkey.
3 M.Sc. Res.Ast., Istanbul Technical University, Civ. Eng. Dept., Istanbul, Turkey*.
4 Ph.D. Res. Ast., Istanbul Technical University, Civ. Eng. Dept., Istanbul, Turkey*.


Abstract

Decision-making has paid no attention to the intersection between River Basin Management and Coastal Zone Management. This paper stresses and describes the importance of the intersection between river basin management and coastal zone management works. Environmentally adverse effects and influence of lack of integrated approach have been pointed out. A case study has also been carried out, in order to put forward the necessity of this integrated approach.



Storm surges and waves along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt

Abdel Aziz Abdel Baeth Hamed

Prof., Chairman of Meteorology Program, Arab Academy for Science and Technology, P.O.B. 1029 Alexandria, Egypt, Tel: 203 5600245, Fax: 203 5603362, 203 5602144


Abstract:

Lack of sufficient knowledge of coastal wave climates and storm surges hinders management and treatment of coastal problems. This limits the data applicability for describing the basic stochastic processes which govern beach changes along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt.

The main purposes of this paper are:

  1. Examination of the effect of the different depressions during their courses over the Eastern Mediterranean on the wave generation along the Egyptian coast.

  2. Comparison between the wave measurements in the area of interest and the estimated wave characteristics from the synoptic charts.

  3. Classification of the storm surges according to their heights and the associated synoptic situations.

  4. Establishing an empirical formula to predict the storm surge height.

  5. Finding out the wave climates along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt.

Data used are the hourly sea level heights, the hourly wind velocity and atmospheric pressure, the mean sea level synoptic charts over the Mediterranean Sea every 6 hours from 1968 to 1988 and the wave observations during 1981, 1982, 1985 and 1986.

Results indicated the following:

  1. Highly significant correlation coefficient between the observed and the predicted surges using the newly derived empirical equation obtained in this work.

  2. There is a highly significant correlation coefficient between wind waves and the predicted waves using a new empirical formula obtained during this study.

  3. Five types of storm surge were identified: A,B,C,D and E. Type A represents the simple case of storm surge (16 cm) and type E has the strongest surge (43cm).



Sea level changes, tide and surges at Borollus and Ras El- Barr along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt

Ahmed Abdel Hamid El-Gindy1 and Zeinab Moursy2

1 Prof. of Physical Oceanography, Oceanography Dept., Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt, Tel: 0203- 5960689, Fax: 0203-4911794
2 Researcher in the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria.


Abstract

The study of the sea level changes with its components : tides and surges as well as the relative importance of their contributions is quite important for coastal management and protection. The main ports along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast ( Alexandria and Port Said) were to some extend studied because of the availability of long sea level records. Therefore, our objective in this paper is to investigate other sites affected by significant active shore processes; Borollus and Ras El- Barr, using the available relatively short sea level time series, from January to September, 1984, collected at the Institute of Coastal Protection Research, Alexandria, Egypt.

The aims of the study are:

  1. Estimation of the amplitudes and phases of the tidal harmonics at the above positions, using Doodson and Mike Forman methods.

  2. Estimation of predicted tidal elevations in the period of the used time series.

  3. Extraction of hourly surge.

  4. The study of frequency and probability distributions of water level and surge which is important in coastal engineering work.

  5. The study of the behavior of the time series of water level and surge, using spectral analysis, and the relative contribution of surge and tide in the water level.

The results indicated that the surge contribution is comparable with or even greater than tidal contribution. It has a daily range -35 to 35 cm, with a mean close to zero cm. It is also characterised by semi-diurnal oscillations; these are probably related to atmospheric pressure cycles and external edge waves. The frequency distributions and the statistical measures at Ras El- Barr and Borollus were quite similar in values. The water level and surges were found normally distributed with defined means and standard deviations. All these information are new in such areas where data are generally not well documented.



History of north-west part of Black Sea Beach

I.A. Repina

Scientist, Laboratory of air-sea interaction, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russia, Academy of Science, Pyzhevsky 3, Moscow, 109017, Russia. Fax: 7-095-233-1652, Tel: 7-095-231-8549, E-Mail: repina@omega.ifaran.ru


Abstract

The fluctuations of a level of the sea are directly connected to change beach: flood, destruction or increase of the coasts. Therefore for planning of economic activity on coast valuations of the tendencies of change of a level of the sea are necessary.

History and dynamics of the north-west part of the Black Sea beach in the past few thousand years are considered. The results of the archaeological and geological investigation are used. The Black Sea was experienced more then once the opposite in sign changes of level thought the past few of thousands of years. At last, two regression (depressions of the sea level) and three transgressions (increasing) was occurred for last 6-5 thousands of years.

As compared with present sea level, the maximum depression was near 10 m (Phanagorya transgression), but the maximum increasing was +2 m (Newblacksea transgression). The period of variations was approximately 1800 years. The description of the feature of the different period is investigated in paper. The associated of the variations of Black Sea level with the climatic changes (so as the moisture of continent, the salinity of sea) is studied.

The imitation modelling results were used to demonstrate that modern variations in the oceanic level do not exceed the climatic ones. The estimates are given of the possible Black Sea level up to the year of 2100 according to three climatic scenarios (with regard to longperiod trends).



Recent advances on prototype dikes measurement installations

Jose. R. Amoros1, Jose Llorca2 and Antonio R. Elvira3

1 Experimentation Section Head.Centro de Estudios de Puertos y Costas CEPYC/CEDEX, Public Works Ministry of Spain, Antonio Lopez 81,28026 Madrid, Fax:34-1-3357622, Tel:34-1-3357635, E-mail:Jose.R.Amoros@cedex.es
2 Technology Dept., Head, Technical Direction, Puertos del Estado governmental institution of Spain, PIANC Secretariat of Spain.
3 Maritime Climate Programme, Puertos del Estado, Spain. Same adresses as above.


Abstract

The present article deals with the innovative advanced instrumentation developed jointly for the Puertos del Estado organization and the Centro de Estudios de Puertos y Costas. CEPYC/CEDEX, targeted to achieve prototype measurements on dike structures constituted by caissons, obtaining valuable results concerning the impact forces, and accelerations due to wave attack over the structure.

The instrumental sections ( two caissons) are located at Las Palmas harbour in the Canary Islands, that was considered the best site for these studies. The paper considers different aspects of the instrumentation as well as the appropriate selection of sensors, the installation works, the analysis network developed and the first results received .

The actually working sections (two of them) are supporting 11 pressure sensors at the vertical face of the wall, all of them in titanium body and diaphragm, 4 pressure sensors to study the effects of subpressures and 3 accelerometers. Sea parameters such as wave heights and the directionality of the sea states will be provided via the scalar buoy data (placed nearly the instrumental sections) and radar evaluation. Also is discussed the appropriate selection of sensors, materials, and assembly procedures, as well as the distributed data scheme for data acquisition/transmission based on multiple computers linked by a network.



Sediment transport and water quality in the coastal zone

I.G.Kantardgi1, M.I.Zheleznyak2, and M.Adamova3

1 Prof.Dr., Moscow State University of Technology "STANKIN", Department of Environmental Engineering & Safety, 3A Vadkovsky pereulok, 101472 Moscow, Russia, Tel/Fax: (007-95) 9733189, E-Mail: ikantar@patience.msk.ru
2 Ph.D. Chairman of Department, Institute of Mathematical Machines & System Problems, Department of Environmental Modelling, 42, Glushkova pr., 252187, Kiev, Ukraine, Tel: (380-44) 2665583, Fax: (380-44) 2664249, E-Mail: mark@dem.ipmms.kiev.ua
3 Ph.D. President of private company "M & 999", 63-a, Vl.Varnenchik Str., 9000 Varna, Bulgaria, Tel: (359-52) 250058, Tel / Fax: (359-52) 256701

Abstract

The modern decreasing of the duration of the Black Sea's coastal line in Russia, Ukraine, and Bulgaria results to the more intensive applying of coastal regions. As a result, the increasing of the technological load to the coastal zone of the Black Sea may be excepted. The determination of the rational activities to protect the coastal zone environment is based on the mathematical modelling of the coastal zone. The numerical experiments have been provided with the set of mathematical models of nearshore transport of suspended sediments and water quality parameters. These models describe currents, wave transformation in coastal areas, sediment transport, advection-diffusion pollutant transport, water quality- bottom sediment interaction. The numerical methods for model processing have been developed and applied to the bay area with the bottom slopes those are typical for North-West coastal areas of the Black Sea. The exchange by pollutants between bottom sediment and water under surface wave and current combined action has been considered.



Laboratory validation of nonlinear shoaling computations

A. Sheremet and M. Stiassnie

CAMERl- Coastal and Marine Eng. Research Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel, Tel: 9724 822 0642, Fax: 9724 822 7~1, E-mail: alex@cameri2.technion.ac.il, miky@cameri2.technion.ac.il


Abstract

We investigate the performance of a nonlinear mathematical model against shoaling waves flume measurements, from both the spectral and bispectral evolution points of view.

A JONSWAP spectrum with = 2.8, representative of waves measured in the eastern Mediterranean, was used to simulate the deep water spectral density.

The wave evolution was simulated numerically using the unidirectional nonlinear de-terministic model, which accounts for wave. shoaling and second order (quadratic) non-linear interaction. The model describes the evolution of arbitrary wide spectra all the way from deep into shallow water, under the restriction of a mildly varying topography.

The results of the numerical simulations agree well with the measurements. The non-linear model predictions based on the phases sets derived directly from the spectral analysis of measured data describe well the evolution of the spectrum, in spite of relatively high dispersion; the numerically simulated bispectra also agree well with the measurements. The simulations using uniformly distributed random phases (a more realistic frame of work in many applications) yield also good results for the power-spectrum evolution, but are less successful in describing the evolution of the bicoherence, for all the data batches that were simulate. Overall, the performance of the unidirectional model is good and highlights the usefulness of the numerical modelling for processes in the shoaling zone.



Marine Conservation and eco-tourism in Israel

Reuven Ortal

Director, Department of Aquatic ecology, NRA, Israel


Abstract

The Mediterranean coast of Israel extended over 190 km, from Ziqim in the south to Rosh HaNiqra in the north. Morphologically, it is divided into two coastal regions, southern and northern, separated by the Carmel - Yagur fault near Haifa. The southern region consist of a wide continental margin with a smooth topography. The narrow northern continental margin forms a steep slope that extends to 1,400 m water depth, cut by numerous submarine canyons (is an extensions of the Lebanese coast). The different morphologies represent different structural histories; relatively high rates of vertical movement in the north, versus slow rates in the south.

Vermetid reefs are unique phenomena that occur in the Mediterranean, only on the eastern coasts. These reefs are small-rimmed intertidal structures which developed in the subtropical marine water of the southern Levant and the Atlantic (Bermuda) coasts, at about the same latitude (about 340N). They are also known as "serpulid reefs", although in both areas they are mainly built by molluscs: Dendropoma spp. in both places and Vermetus triquetrus only in the Levant. These reefs are globally rare phenomena. They can exist only where soft and erodable coastal rocks rise at an appropriate rate relative to the marine erosion. The rim of D. petraeum is about 10 cm high, creating an interface shallow lagoon where dense algal meadows develop with diverse and rich intertidal fauna.

There are 14 proposed marine nature reserves in Israel with a total length of about 35.5 km, and another 44 km of declared and proposed coastal reserves, mostly in parallel sections. There are two marine protected belts along the shore, between Rosh HaNiqra and Akhziv (north of Akko) and between Atlit and Dor (south of Haifa) where all fishes, molluscs and most marine invertebrates are fully protected under separate bylaws. Marine protected belts are generally included in the proposed marine nature reserves, which will enable better protection in the future. There are also ten national parks, mostly with antiquities (e.g. Akhziv and Ceasarea), along the coast.

There are almost no islands in the Levantine basin except Cyprus and some small islets along the Turkish, Syrian, Lebanese and the Israeli coasts. There are about 30 islets with an area over 0.1 ha, between Tel Aviv and the northern border of Israel. Most of them are within 200 m of the beach, and only the northern islets are further off shore distance (1000-1200). the largest islet is Segavion, about 2.3 ha and about 1 km from the Akhziv beach. Most of the islets are includes in proposed marine reserves and five islets are already declared as nature reserves. None of the islets are inhabited, nor subject to any human usage. Marine birds nest on some islets and about 2,000 cormorants are winter on the northern islets.

The primary aims of the marine management policy are to protect the unique Vermetid reefs, the low-diversity native biota of the Levant with some endemics, enriched with Lessepsian migrants and the coastal migrant pathway. Eco-tourism threatening the remote coasts which escaped until today from development. It is important to arrest any further development in nature reserves along the coastline and to protect them in their pristine landscape status.



Alternative Tourist Activities for Coastal Destinations

Emre Öztürk

Ministry of Tourism, Ankara, Turkey. Fax: 90 312 2128391, Tel: 90 312 2128593


Abstract

In the new age of tourism, the tourist product is to be adapted to the consumer's expectations, which are now more nature and conservation oriented, and its presentation should use modern techniques and equipment.

Experts are worried about the way Mediterranean tourism develops, from both a structural and a conjectural point of view. Holiday resorts in this area are vulnerable to mass conventional tourism and related urbanisation.

Alternative tourist activities are to be encouraged for a sustainable and balanced tourism development in coastal destination countries. Interpretation centers, cultural roads and theme parks enhance education and sensibilisation of the guest on the host culture and environment. The valid information and advanced technology requirements in their management can be met by international cooperation.



Strengthening the involvement of MAP-UNEP in ICZM pilot projects

A. Pavasovic

Consultant on ICZM, Rendica 24, 21000 Split, HR Croatia, Tel: 385 21 48594, Fax No: 385 21 361 677, E-mail: arsen.pavasovic@public.srce.hr


Abstract

The author, being involved in the implementation of ICZM related activities of the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) and of its Coastal Areas Management Programme (MAP CAMP) since 1984 till 1994, is presenting a critical review of MAP CAMP and suggesting some modifications, which may lead to improvements of project implementation and better use of projects' results.

The concept and contents of MAP CAMP are briefly presented. The implemented and on-going MAP projects are presented and commented: the Syrian Coastal Region, the Kastela Bay (Croatia), the İzmir Bay (Turkey), the Island of Rhodes (Greece), the Albanian Coastal Region, the Fuka Area (Egypt) and the Sfax Area (Tunisia).

The main elements of the Programme are reviewed and commented: concepts, institutional arrangements, financial aspects, training component, harmonization and integration. The elements related to the host country involvement are commented: the counterpart involvement and contribution, participation of major ministries and national and local institutions, the involvement of local authorities, of the scientific community and of the general public and the implementation of the projects' results.

The author considers that particular attention in the future should be dedicated to the integration of results of various project components, to a stronger involvement of the local authorities, of the scientific community and of the general public and to the presentation of the project results, Furthermore, the preparation phase of the projects should be shortened. The host countries should secure the involvement of all relevant authorities, a better diffusion of projects' results and their better implementation in practice.

Finally the author is suggesting the introduction of a post project phase, dedicated to the application and implementation of the project results.



Coastal Land Use and Environmental Improvement Process

M. Pietrobelli

Architect, expert in Physical and Environmental Planning. Head of Project in the Environment Department of Technosynesis-STR Planning and Engineering Consultants SpA - Rome, Tel: 39 6 8814488, Fax: 39 6 8816405


Abstract

This paper illustrates a research project carried out within the framework of the "Programma Oloferne" of the WWF-Italy relating to land use, concerning in particular the identification and study of the free coastal areas presently existing in national territory, considered as the starting point for a process of conservation, protection and recovery of the marine-coastal environment.



Aspects of Mediterranean Coastal Area Protection

Maria Caterina Redini

Prof., Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" - Dipartimento Innovazione Tecnologica nell'Architettura e Cultura dell'Ambiente- 70, Via Flaminia 00196 Roma Tel: 39 6 49919080/81/82 Fax: 39 6 49919028


Abstract

The short report concerning the problems and results of the workshops which took place during the MED CAMPUS programmes is intended as a contribution to find out lines and trends referring to some aspects of a more general subject, that is the Mediterranean coastal environment. This has to be considered as a methodological approach to follow the development of programmes concerning tourist settlements in the Mediterranean coastal areas which have to be "consistent" with the protection of natural, historical and archaeological resources.



Review of Coastal Management in Israel

Valerie Brachya

Director of Planning, Israel Ministry of the Environment, P.O.B. 34033, Jerusalem 95464, Israel. Tel: 972 2 655, 3850/1, Fax: 972 2 655 3853, E-Mail: valerie@netvision.net.il


Abstract

Coastal zone management in Israel contains two main elements: Land use planning at national, regional and local levels and marine pollution prevention and control. The policies are largely implemented through a top-down institutional framework, through central government, and are backed up by legislation, including statutory documents and regulations, and by enforcement procedures. Public participation through NGO'S is relatively weak , but is recently becoming more active, particularly in opposition to marinas.



A Review of Coastal Management in Slovenia

Slavko Mezek

Senior Advisor, Republic of Slovenia, Mnistry of Environment and Physical Planning,Istitute for Physical Planning, 1001 Ljubljana, Dunajska 47., Tel: 386 61 1787 055, Fax: 385 61 1787 010, E-mail:slavko.mezek@mop.upp.sigov.mail.si, URL: http://www.sigov.si/cgi-bin/spl/upp/uk_index.html


Abstract

In the article the most important characteristics of the state of environment in the Slovenian coastal area shall be described: presented are data on the state of the sea and fresh water, air, soil, protected and unprotected natural heritage, as well as waste, noise and accidents in the environment. From the sustainable development point of view also the state of the most important activities in the area, as settlement, tourism, traffic and agriculture are shown. On the basis of this information we can see to which extent human activity has been consistent with the principles of sustainable development in the past and further more identify the major problems and the priorities for their solution.

In the second part the socio-political and legislative context for the solution of environmental and development problems in Slovenia is delineated: presented are the main features of the transition period in Slovenia, constitutional basis and structural characteristics of the legislative reform which is in progress, the nature and the competencies of the public administration, forms of problem solution at the regional level etc. Finally some successful models of problem solutions in the coastal area which nevertheless indicate the practical implementation of the principles of sustainable development are presented.



Main Tools and Procedures for Integrated Coastal Zone Management Used in the Black Sea Region

K. R. Galabov

Ph. D., Ass. Professor, Ministry of Regional Development and Construction, Sofia, Bulgaria, Tel/Fax: 00 359 2 882 875 or 00 359 2 658 908


Abstract

In this paper, the main ICZM tools used by Bulgaria and by the other Black Sea countries are presented based on the results reached by the GEF Black Sea Environmental Program(GEF-BSEP) in the course of the analyses of the present situation which are included in the national ICZM reports and their summary developed by the Activity Center in Krasnodar, Russian Federation(Summary Report on Black Sea Integrated Coastal Zone Management , I. Kharitonov, 1996). These tools reflect at the moment the sectoral approach in the CZM but they constitute a good basis for further development of the ICZM legislation, institutional framework and scientific back-up of the process.



ICZM in Russia: Achievements and Perspectives

E. Antonidze1 and L. Yarmak2

1 Deputy Director, BSEP-ICZM Activity Centre, Russia, 350640 Krasnodar, Str. Krasnaya, 19, Tel/Fax: +7 8612 525645, E-Mail: kat@priroda.kuban.ru
2 Ph.D, Deputy Chairman, Krasnodar Regional Committee on Environmental Protection; Director of BSEP-ICZM Activity Centre, Russia, 350640 Krasnodar, Str.Krasnaya, 19, Tel: +7 8612 570431, Fax: +7 8612 528832, E-Mail: sed@priroda.kuban.ru


Abstract

In present article actions undertaken in Russia for the development of ICZM program for the Black and the Azov Seas coasts within the territory of Krasnodar region of Russian Federation are considered.



Some Aspects of Integrated Management of Coastal Zones Subject to Heavy Industrial Pollution Loads in a Country with Transitional Economy - Ukraine

Alexandre K. Kouzine, Vladimir V.Kuznetsov

Ukrainian Scientific Center for Protection of Waters, P.O.B.310166, 6 Bakulina Str., Kharkiv, Ukraine, Tel/Fax: 380-572-45-50-47


Abstract

In recent years the problems of rehabilitation and ecologically safe coastal zones management in a country like Ukraine which has a long coastal line both at the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea have become one of the most urgent and important concern both for the governmental authorities and general public as a whole.

Degradation of all coastal zones in Ukraine is a result of long time neglect, lack of comprehensive and end-result oriented policy for the coastal zones management both at the national and regional levels.

An especially difficult situation with the coastal zones ecological state exists at big industrial cities located at the coasts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, such as Odessa, Nikolayev, Mariupol and some other cities. Degradation of the coastal zones and associated with them estuarine zones of the big rivers of Ukraine, such as Dniepr, Yuzhny Bug and Danube River inflicts great economic and environmental damage to the country which even more aggravates economic situation of Ukraine facing the problems of economic transition and social system transformation.

Discussed in this paper are some attempts undertaken by Ukrainian specialists to develop a system of integrated management of a stretch of the coastal-estuarine zone bordering a big industrial area within an urban territory which generates and discharges a heavy pollution load in the form of municipal and industrial wastes into adjacent coastal zone. This approach has been developed and proposed for one administrative district of the city of Nikolayev located at the site of confluence of the estuary of the Yuzhny Bug River and the Black Sea.

The principal idea of the approach tried, was to provide conditions and mechanism for maintaining sustainable development and usage of that or another stretch of the coastal zone at the considered area and to reduce the degree of conflict of various interests manifested by the users and managers of the coastal zone resources.

To be able to meet and reconcile such different interests it is proposed to establish a kind of district-level coordination unit which would comprise representatives of various municipal authorities, industry, environmental and law-enforcement agencies active at the level of the district and the city as a whole. In general approach proposed for the city of Nikolayev was approved and supported by the key players involved in coastal zone management planning and improvement activities, both at the regional and national level but its limitations, especially from legal point of view and in relation to the sources of funding are well recognized and will be addressed in the future.



Radioecological Situation's Monitoring for South-West Caucasus

N.Y. Beradze, J.X. Diasamidze, J.V. Khomeriky, M.P. Nozadze, A.E. Shaptoshvili, M.S. Tsitskishvili

Department of Hydrometeorology, Tbilisi, Georgia
Sub-faculty of Oceanology under UNESCO, a~ the State University, Tbilisi Georgia
Georgian Academy of Sciences, Tbilisi, Georgia


Abstract

Results of long-tern monitoring of radioecological situation at the south-west Caucasus are summarized. Numerical models are worked out for prognosis of molismological situation of the Black Sea coast permitting to carry out an integral coastal zone management (ICZM) taking into account the nature of antropogenic pollutants and their alterations.



The Development of Parasitological Situation under Biological Cleaning Reefs Effect in Recreation Zone

A.V. Gaevskaja1, V.K. Machkevsky2

1 Prof., Chief of Dept. of Ecol. Parasitol. of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Sevastopol, Ukraine, Fax: 380 692 4444477, E-mail: alviga@ibss.iuf.net
2 Senior Scientist, Dept. of Ecol. Parasitol. of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Sevastopol, Ukraine, Fax: 380 692 4444477, E-mail: alviga@ibss.iuf.net


Abstract

The Crimean coast due to its natural-climatic characteristics is largely used for recreation. Over last decades the interests of health resort business have come in contradiction with development of agriculture, industries, fleet and increase of urban population on coasts, giving rise a number of socio-ecological problems. Therefore it is not accidentally the idea occurs to use the artificial reefs - man-made structures for biological cleaning of recreation waters. In this report we consider only parasitological aspects of place and function of artificial reefs, destined for biological cleaning of coastal waters in Crimean recreation zone. The efficiency of water-cleaning artificial reef depends upon a characters of biocenosis appearing on it, namely numbers of taxa, diversity and species abundance and composition of epiflora and epifauna. The filter feeding mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis is the most suitable organism for improvement in water quality. In the Black Sea, in particular along the Crimean coast, the mussels form the vast beds, enriching the coastal waters with an enormous number of plancton larvae. Therefore, it is to be expected that primarily the mussel will be the dominant hydrobiont on the artificial reef. Then the hydrobionts representing all trophic levels appear here. And then, the parasites appear in this self-regulating ecosystem. The nature of the life-cycle of the particular species of parasite, the interactions between the biology and ecology of the parasite and its successive hosts are important in relation to the ecosystem of artificial reef. Artificial reefs for biological cleaning of recreation water have much in common with mollusc farms, because the same bivalve, the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis is used as biological filter. However, the community of hydrobionts on water-cleaning reefs differs from natural communities by the dominant role of mussels. In the Black Sea the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis is infected with 16 endosymbiont species (parasites and endocommensals). Water-cleaning artificial reef having high specific surface of substrate stimulates an increase a number of hosts of mussel parasites, creating the favourable conditions for circulation of parasites and increase of their populations. High density of mussel beds on artificial reefs, slow speeds of water movement inside of reefs create the favourable conditions for invasion and reinvasion of mussels by different endocommensals. Among symbionts infecting the mussels there are some species capable to effect on efficiency of cleaning function of artificial reefs. They are: the microsporidia, Steinhausia mytilovum, the trematodes Parvatrema duboisi and Proctoeces maculatus, the polychaete Polydora ciliata and the spongia Cliona vastifica.



The Experience and Software of Marine Natural Hazards Estimation

Alexander V. Boukhanovsky1, Leonid I. Lopatoukhin2 Valentin A. Rozhkov3

1 Post Graduate, St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University, 190008, St. Petersburg, Lotsmanskaya str., 3, Russia. E-mail: deg@mtu-mic.spb.su
2 Leading Scientist, State Oceanographic Institute, St. Petersburg Branch, 199026, St. Petersburg, 23-Line, 2A, Russia. E-mail: waves@ocean.spb.su
3 Director, State Oceanographic Institute, St. Petersburg Branch, 199026, St. Petersburg, 23-Line, 2A, Russia. E-mail: waves@ocean.spb.su


Abstract

Main marine hazards, affecting the human activity in the coastal zone, are the wind, waves, level variations, and storm surges in any seas. State Oceanographic Institute in St. Petersburg (SPO GOIN) has a big experience in carrying out the calculations, needed for design of nearshore and offshore facilities and operability studies. In particularly the software package for calculation extreme values of natural events are elaborated. The input to software either the measured marine parameters or simulated by hydrodynamic and stochastic models. The wave observations near Russian coast of the Black sea over 20 years are used for calculation n-year waves. The confidence of these estimates are made and results are presented.